How well does ploughing work as a method of Nuclear Decontamination?

October 7, 2014

How well does ploughing work? After the British had finised nuking Australia, they ploughed areas of the Maralinga nuclear test site and declared it clean as a result.
The Australian Radiation Protection And Safety Agency reports as follows: “What has been done to rehabilitate the site?

In a rehabilitation operation carried out by the UK Ministry of Defence in 1967 (Operation Brumby), an attempt was made to dilute the surface concentration of plutonium in the more highly contaminated areas, particularly in central Taranaki. This was done by turning over and mixing the surface soil. In future rehabilitation programs this area was known as the “ploughed area”.

“Since the closure of the range in 1967, numerous studies have been carried out to map and characterise the contamination at Maralinga including detailed studies in 1984-85 by the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL, which became ARPANSA in February 1999). These studies revealed that contamination levels at the site were much greater than earlier acknowledged.” Source:  http://www.arpansa.gov.au/radiationprotection/basics/maralinga.cfm

How many times will Fukkushima be ploughed? Once in the current era and again in 32 years time? After the truth comes out?

Attempted Decontamination of Farmland in Japan by Ploughing – Farmers of the world, skill up.

October 7, 2014

What’s a farmer’s field worth devoid of it’s topsoil?

How successful is ploughing as a means of decontamination? Depends on how honest the nuclear experts are and on how slack they are. It didn’t work at Bikini Atoll. USA is still trying to get rid of their mess from the 1950s. Using potassium. Cesium is NOT a banana.

Who is paying for the decontamination of this land? Is it the industry which caused via a Cesium Levy? No.

It is the ordinary taxpayer of Japan.  This is corporate welfare.  How do farmers raise a product without benefit of the topsoil which took generations of skilled stewardship to create, build up and maintain?  This is corporate impost and risk imposed by a global welfare beneficiary of great wealth and influence.  There is no justice here.

Look, it is my experience as an Australia with a bit more memory than a goldfish that nuclear NEVER give accurate assessments of the consequences of nuclear disaster.   They initially assure safety and when an event occurs, respond with public opinion control and denial of harms. DECADES later, they come out with some truth.  The aim of the game is to minimise cost and to limit liabiity. It is also to allow the industry and activity to continue.  They wait for about a generation or the half life of Strontium 90 and then say “tut tut, those old experts didn’t know enough but now we know it all so dont contradict us.” They still dont pay just compensation the victims.  And when they themselves commit the same cock ups say “It’s perfectly, dont be radiophobic spreaders of FUD. The reactor will only be offline for year, renewables are not the answer, they don’t need fuel mines and drill heads.”  A circle game.

The “Fukushima Experiment”. An email from David Chanin.

October 7, 2014

David Chanin co-authored, among other things, the following publications :

“MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) Model Description”

NUREG/CR-4691, SAND86-1562, Prepared by H-N Jow, J. L. Sprung, J. A. Rollstin, L. T. Ritchie, D.I. Chanin,

Sandia National Laboratories, Prepared for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ManuscriptCompleted:

December 1989 Date Published: February 1990.

87185 GRAM, Inc.Albuquerque, NM Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc. Albuquerque, NM Prepared for
Division of Systems Research Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S.Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Washington, DC 20555 NRC FIN A1853, Prepared for Division of Systems Research Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Washington, DC 20555 NRC FIN A1853
and
“PWA 00004 Pilgrim LR Proceeding 50-293 – LR, 06-848-02-LR PWA- David Chanin: MACCS2 Support Forum & The Development of MACCS2: Lessons Learned, August 23, 2006 RE: MACCS2 Economic Costs” Available at:
In 2011 and 2012 David Chanin and I exchanged emails in regard to the consequences of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster.
In response to a question David Chanin responded with the following:
David Chanin To Paul Langley16 Jul 2011

“I think we’ll never know the truth about what’s happening there.”
—– Original Message —–
From: paul langley
To: David Chanin
Sent: Thursday, July 14, 2011 9:21 AM
Subject: Decontamination in Fukushima
David, has there been any progress or good news regarding decontamination of Fukushima City itself?

Regards
Paul Langley

David Chanin also wrote the following:
— On Fri, 22/4/11, David Chanin <> wrote:

From: David Chanin <>
Subject: hey, here’s another favor you can do me
To: “paul langley” <>
Received: Friday, 22 April, 2011, 1:45 AM

Paul

What’s amazing to me is that I seem to be the only one who thinks that I-131 levels should be decreasing with 8-day halflife because its only parents in the “standard NRC 60-nuclide list for reactors” are Te-131and Te-131m, both with shorter halflives, so they can’t be causing any I-131 buildup and certainly can’t cause the high levels of I-131 being reported in the flood of measurements that were published by TEPCO all on April 19, with measurements of seawater as far away as 15 km showing I:Cs rations of over 2:1 and as high as 3:1, but sometimes they’re equal, with few to none where I-131 is measured at levels less than Cs-134  and Cs-137 on a Bq/gram-water basis with 1000-second counting time of 1-liter sample, which matches up with usage of a gamma spectrometry machine like the GAM-AN1 by Canberra:  http://www.canberra.com/literature/994.asp

Can you do me a favor and ask one of your nuclear engineer contacts how and why I-131 can be over double the reported levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137, after five halflives of I-131?

I’m not a nuclear engineer who can try to run the Origen code for their reactors and the SNF pools to see what could be making the I-131.  I’m the consequence analyst who developed the MACCS2 code and have used it and its predecessor MACCS since the 1980s for nuclear accident analysis.

All I know is that when people use the MACCS2 code, which is the NRC-approved code for reactor PRA consequence calculations, and is used worldwide for well over 500 nuclear facilities and operations since its release in 1997, the MACCS2 code shows ZERO consequences from I-131 from reactor accidents after 40 days of decay.   It’s not just the direct exposure doses from groundshine and inhalation, it’s also the food doses calculated by the code with both of the “food models” that are available to the code user.  Milk from cows grazing during a large release shows very low levels of I-131 after 40 days according to the MACCS2 calculations. 

And it’s also my understanding that “normal levels” of I-131 in SNF pools should be practically zero, with the million-year, weak emitter, I-129 being the only iodine that should be detected to any significant degree in SNF water from an intact pool under normal operation.  So, if my MACCS2 code is wrong about I-131, then all the safety analyses that use to MACCS2 to calculate nuclear accident impacts are also wrong. That’s why this is an important question.

Even if criticalities are ongoing, it’s impossible for me to imagine that they could be creating so much I-131.  I’ve used “standard decay tables” that all derive from ICRP 38 and were calculated by Keith Eckerman, at ORNL, who calculates the internal and external DCFs for US and international agencies which all rely on the ICRP 38 decay chains, where decay-chain calcs are necessary because of the decay and buildup of progeny after an intake both on the ground for deposited material and in the human body from inhlaed or ingested material.

I have not tried to use this database from KfK to solve the puzzle.: http://www.nucleonica.net/unc.aspx

So my question, which you can forward around with all the above ane below is: Why are the I-131 levels of April 19 in “plant-water” and seawater from  http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html   so high after 5 halflives?  The NRC says that the MACCS2 code is essentially error-free. I’m curious if that’s true because I learned way back in school that there is no such thing a bug-free large-scale software such as MACCS2, which has received little-to-none verification and validation for complex scenarios.

I have no qualms whatsoever being known as the source of this request.  I’ve never pretended to know everything.

David Chanin

David Chanin also wrote the following:

“I haven’t read your blog going back past a week or so. The only reason i posted there was that it seemed like a safe enough place to post my newly formed opinion about the Japanese being used as human guninea pigs for the second time … but now by their own government. There are plenty of competent CHPs in Japan who can read and write good English. Unfortunately, competent CHPs seem to have no involvement with the events of Fukushima. The flood of garbled information with nonsense numbers coming from people driving cars around with a single pen dosimeter to take a “dose reading” is tragically funny. You’re right about ignoring the inhalation intakes. They might not know that the inhalation pathway is more important than “groundshine.” But that’s Radiation Safety 101. Every nuclear engineer in the world should know that or have it on their bookshelf. Tis a mystery. Maybe the US NRC told them they didn’t have to worry about inhalation as long as they wore face masks. But then what about analyzing their nasal swabs? Never mind. The labs are full. No need to worry. It’s perfectly safe. Time will tell … Meantime we get to do a huge experiment to see if low doses and low dose rates actually can cause any cancers other than childhood thyroid cancers. Isn’t that grand?”  David Chanin 2011.
When a nuclear decontamination expert communicates  the concerns expressed above, people need to sit up and take notice.   I know only 2 nuclear experts: my superior officers during my time in the Army.  I am a facebook friend of an Oak Ridge worker. I have corresponded with Dr. Pazit. I have conversed, by email with Paul Frame at Oak Ridge.  These are the only nuclear experts, apart from David Chanin with whom I have conversed.  So sadly the riddle of the wonky Iodine : Cesium ratios in evidence at Fukushima is quite beyond me. The obvious chemical causes I suggested are wrong. The obvious answer which springs to anyone’s mind may or may not be correct. (ie, was fission ongoing at Fukushima later than March 2001? Who knows? ).
It’s passed time for everyone to think for themselves on the basis of the best information availabe. IMO

“Fukushima: Dispossession or Denuclearization?” now available

September 10, 2014

For most of this year a writing and publishing project has been underway around the world.

Today the project has come to completion. The contributors are:

Majia Nadesan, Adam Broinowski, Richard Wilcox, Tony Boys, Chris Busby, Paul Langley, Harvey Wasserman, Christian T. Lystbaek, Andrew McKillop, The Fukushima Five, William Banzai 7.

All proceeds after costs go to the Fukushima Collective Evacuation (Trial Team)

The book (printed version) is available at http://www.lulu.com/shop/nadesanboysmckillopwilcox-editors/fukushima-dispossession-or-denuclearization/paperback/product-21798972.html

ebook version:

http://www.lulu.com/shop/nadesanboysmckillopwilcox-editors/fukushima-dispossession-or-denuclearization/ebook/product-21799311.html

Both versions will be available at Amazon soon.

A New Blog

April 30, 2014

http://nuclearexhaust.wordpress.com

The Nuclear History Blog has become rather large and unwieldy. It is far easier for me to start a new blog, and use Nuclear History as a reference.

I’ve chosen the title Nuclear Exhaust because this is the crux of the issue in the modern world, as it has been since the beginning.

The attempt to conceal the consequences of nuclear emissions behind the false assertion that only nuclear weapons are dangerous – and that reactors and the other components of the nuclear cycle are benign – is the great lie of nuclear authorities, and has been since 1945.

Nuclear power as primary basis of state power – increasingly less democratic states – is merely one political and social way of existing. Such a state of being is not inevitable for any state. There are many ways for a state and a society to exist.

The nuclear power states are less and less the guardians of stability and prosperity – more and more they restrict free expression and claim state privilege while censoring information crucial for voters and societies to freely hold.

The demise of democracy in Japan, as established by that nation’s new secrecy laws, flows as naturally from the global nuclear industry need to hide the truth as night follows day. It is as predictable as the original and amended US Atomic Energy Act – the singular act which has enabled the nation most committed to free expression to plunge into darkness entire decades of deceit.

The truth only being revealed when it is too late for the plaintiffs, the machinery of justice and the safety of “mere” individuals.

It is a myth that nuclear industry is a zero emitter. Where is the fission and fuel emission levy?

Dr. Strangelove might mock the wind, the sun, the tides, and the heat of the core of the earth, however each trillions of horsepower are needlessly wasted. The sun falling on the Sahara alone could power the planet.

It is now too late for justice for so many military and civilian victims since 1945. It is not too late for continued clear proclamations of the truth. Unless the truth is known, abandonment of nuclear power will be caused by the economic and environmental collapse it is rushing us toward.

The thousands of nuclear refugees already present in the world are a foretaste of things to come if long known truths are not resolutely rescued from obscurity.

It is no surprise that there is no justice for nuclear veterans. To give anyone justice would be to create a legal precedent which would cut into the corporate profits of companies responsible for the assaults both old and new.

These companies have been cossetted and coddled by power drunk administrations. At the same time, governments governments cry poor and force, as in Japan, large segments of populations live in polluted areas. Areas which, as recently as 2010, were clean and happy food bowls for a land poor, talent rich population.

It is no surprise new laws increasingly gag such witness populations.

Estimated radiation doses of Fukushima returnees withheld for half a year

April 17, 2014

http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/fukushima/AJ201404160056

Estimated radiation doses of Fukushima returnees withheld for half a year
April 16, 2014

THE ASAHI SHIMBUN

The government withheld findings on estimated radiation exposure for Fukushima returnees for six months, even though levels exceeded the long-term target of 1 millisievert a year at more than half of surveyed locations.

Individual radiation doses were estimated to be beyond 1 millisievert per year, or 0.23 microsievert an hour, at 24 of all the 43 surveyed sites, including ones in the Miyakoji district in Tamura, Fukushima Prefecture, The Asahi Shimbun learned April 15.

The revelation comes just two weeks after the central government lifted the evacuation order for the district on April 1.

Last July, the Cabinet Office’s working team in charge of assisting the lives of nuclear disaster victims asked the National Institute of Radiological Sciences and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency to measure air dose rates and estimate individual radiation doses at 43 locations.

The survey covered seven types of living spaces, including private residences, farmland and schools, in the prefecture’s three municipalities of Tamura, Kawauchi and Iitate.

The government’s decontamination work aims at bringing radiation levels in contaminated areas to within 20 millisieverts a year before it gives the go-ahead for residents to return.

It also intends to bring readings to 1 millisievert or less eventually. The International Commission on Radiological Protection says a reading of up to 20 millisieverts is acceptable in areas where cleanup is under way.

The central government has also proposed to distribute devices that measure individual radiation to returned evacuees, so residents can monitor their radiation doses on their own.

But some evacuees from areas affected by the Fukushima No. 1 plant nuclear accident, which was triggered by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster, worry about the possibility they may be exposed to high radiation doses after returning to their homes.

For this reason, the government decided to study correlations between air dose rates and individual radiation doses around the crippled facility to prove that the amount of radiation to which residents will be exposed is sufficiently low, even when air dose rates are relatively high.

The National Institute of Radiological Sciences and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency last fall measured radiation levels at several dozens of spots at each of the 43 sites in the three municipalities. They found that individual radiation doses are typically 30 percent lower than air dose rates.

The government-affiliated bodies also discovered that average air dose rates exceeded 0.23 microsievert per hour at 27 of the 43 sites, while they estimated individual radiation doses at over 0.23 microsievert an hour at 24 locations.

In mid-October, the two agencies compiled a midterm report and submitted it to the government. But the Cabinet Office’s working team did not disclose the report until the evacuation order for the Miyakoji district was lifted. According to a member of the team, this was because the finding “has no direct relationship with lifting the evacuation orders.”

Although the government held numerous meetings with Miyakoji residents to discuss lifting the evacuation order, it never presented the survey results, nor did it even refer to the existence of the data.

The government only presented an outline of the results to the three municipalities earlier in April.

Asked to disclose the findings, the government released the survey results to The Asahi Shimbun and posted the midterm report on the website of the industry ministry.

The working team said it planned to reveal the survey’s findings and analysis of the data on April 18 after fine-tuning its final report. But the team changed its mind because The Asahi Shimbun’s request to disclose the findings made it realize that public interest in the survey was greater than expected.

(This article was written by Shinichi Sekine and Miki Aoki.)

Good News from Nuclear Veteran Dave Whyte

April 13, 2014

Dave writes:
“Hello Everyone,

I am sending you a copy of the article which appeared in the Sunday Mirror this week.

I would also like you to know that the Judge from the Upper Tier in Edinburgh has accepted my plea that my release medical document was a forgery, and he has ‘Directed’ that a fresh trial be heard where I will be given the chance to state my evidence. This will be the first time I have been permitted to tell the Courts of the true events that occurred during the British Nuclear tests at Christmas Island.

Besides the forged document, I have proof that other documents relating to dosage rates have been deliberately concealed.

I will let you know what happens.

All the best

Dave “

As always, best of luck Dave.

It takes a long long time to fight the nukers folks.

Another great blog telling the truth

April 10, 2014

http://mariannewildart.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/sellafields-radioactive-pollution-from-the-irish-sea-to-the-arctic-omnicide-knows-no-bounds-between-wildlife-and-humans/

Radiation Free Lakeland
Preventing the Lake District from becoming a nuclear sacrifice zone. The government is looking to bury high level nuclear waste in a hole deeper than Scafell is high and bigger than the City of Carlisle. No Thanks!

Check it out.

Some Fukushima residents cleared to return home amid ongoing contamination fears

April 2, 2014

http://edition.cnn.com/2014/04/01/world/asia/fukushima-miyakoji-return/

Fukushima residents cleared to return home amid ongoing contamination fears
By Euan McKirdy, CNN

April 1, 2014 — Updated 1012 GMT (1812 HKT)


Families are cleared to return to a district of Tamura City in Fukushima prefecture — but is it worth the risk?

CNN) — Hundreds of residents of an area contaminated by a catastrophic reactor meltdown at a nuclear plant in northeastern Japan have been allowed to return home three years after the disaster.

An evacuation order, declared in the aftermath of a devastating tsunami that crippled the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant in March, 2011, was lifted at midnight on Monday from the Miyakoji district of Tamura city in Fukushima Prefecture.

Residents of the town, who have been in limbo ever since, are now free to re-inhabit their homes following decontamination work in the area.

Life in Fukushima after nuclear disaster
See inside Japan’s damaged nuclear plant
Exclusive look inside Fukushima

The Tohoku earthquake and subsequent tsunami off Japan’s northeastern coast led to the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl in 1986. Three reactors melted down, with the resulting radiation fallout forcing nearly 140,000 people from their homes.

Around 138,000 Fukushima residents remain in temporary accommodation, with a number of cities, towns and villages reduced to ghost towns due to continued high levels of radiation.

“We are doing as much as possible (to allow) the other residents can come home. We are strengthening support towards the residents (and) strengthening the decommissioning work,” a TEPCO spokesperson told CNN.

Restrictions lifted

Monday’s lifting of the exclusion order is the first time an area this close to the site has been cleared. Miyakoji is 12 miles (20 kilometers) from the plant, on the edge of the initial exclusion zone.

Prior to the lifting of the order, some Fukushima residents were allowed to stay overnight in their homes, subject to registration. All restrictions on their movements have now been lifted within the cleared district.

355 residents — out of a total 116 households — are now free to return to their homes in Miyakoji permanently. The city of Tamura is one of eleven settlements in Fukushima that are still subject to evacuation orders.

Radiation worries

However, concerns remain about background radiation levels and uncertainty surrounding the safety of the area, especially given past concerns about the reporting of radiation levels in the area by Fukushima’s operator, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). Last month, Miyakoji residents were told at a community meeting that radiation contamination levels had lowered sufficiently to enable their return to the area — though some voiced concern over existing radiation levels despite decontamination efforts around some communities.

“Yes, I am a bit worried. But it’s my land, my house, so I am feel safer and more at home here,” one resident told broadcaster NHK.

Areas are declared suitable for habitation if residents are exposed to a maximum of 20 millisieverts of radiation per year. Officials have said they would like to get radiation exposure down to one millisievert a year.

The containment effort at the wrecked Fukushima plant has been beset by problems, with regular reports of leaks of contaminated material. Earlier this year, an estimated 100 metric tons of highly contaminated water flowed over a barrier around a containment tank and is being absorbed into the ground, TEPCO said in a statement — though it denied there was any leakage into the nearby Pacific Ocean.

The Lights of Fukushima by Night

April 2, 2014

http://evacuatefukushimanow.wordpress.com/2014/03/04/the-lights-of-fukushima-daiichi-by-night/

The Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, foreground, shines in the darkness on Feb. 18. The city of Iwaki in Fukushima Prefecture, top left, and central Tokyo, stretching from east to west on the horizon, are also seen. (Yusaku Kanagawa)

Seen from an altitude of 13,000 meters at night, the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant shone brightly in a sea of darkness amid the loneliness of the evacuation zone.

The Asahi Shimbun flew its Asuka airplane over the municipalities of Fukushima Prefecture on Feb. 18. The plant was clearly visible because work to deal with the rising volume of contaminated water and to decommission reactors was actively ongoing, even at night.

In stark contrast, near-complete darkness enveloped areas designated as difficult-to-return zones for residents surrounding the plant.

The city of Iwaki in the prefecture and the bright glow of central Tokyo, once the main recipient of electricity generated from the plant, could also be glimpsed from the plane.

NOTE from Nelson

All these years, Tokyo’s electricity came in parts from Fukushima. Yet so many people and businesses have switched the ON button full blast ever since, not giving a single thought about what is happening to Fukushima. The contrast seen in terms of power generated electricity between Tokyo (top left of the picture) and anywhere west of Daiichi is revealing to say the least.

HEY TOKYO … Aren’t you suppose to save some energy after 311 ???

Live from Laland

March 4th 2014

Thank you Nelson Surjon.

Here’s a plug for Nelson’s Tokyo Restaurant.