Archive for April, 2011

Japanese Met. Office Panics over Fear of Public Panic, so Rad forecasts Suppressed

April 30, 2011

http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/20110430p2g00m0dm017000c.html

The Mainichi Daily News

Weather chief draws flak over plea not to release radiation forecasts

TOKYO (Kyodo) — The chief of the Meteorological Society of Japan has drawn flak from within the academic society over a request for member specialists to refrain from releasing forecasts on the spread of radioactive substances from the troubled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant.

In the request posted March 18 on the society’s website, Hiroshi Niino, professor at the University of Tokyo, said such forecasts, which he says carry some uncertainty, “could jumble up information about the government’s antidisaster countermeasures unnecessarily.”

“The basic principle behind antidisaster measures is to enable people to act on unified reliable information,” he said.

Niino later said in commenting on the intention he had in issuing the statement, “If (society members’) forecasts were announced, it would have carried the risk that ordinary people may panic.”

But Toshio Yamagata, another University of Tokyo professor who is a member of the society, said meteorological scientists have the responsibility to encourage the government to take the right course of action by announcing their forecasts “especially when a country is going through a critical situation.”

Our society has degenerated into a bureaucratic entity,” he warned.

Niino released an additional statement that can be interpreted as self-defense on the website on April 11, entitled “a supplement to the (original) message.”

end quote. Partial

In response to the persistent reports which related the horror of the Australian
Black Mist incident, in 1980 Professor Titterton, Chair of the Atomic Weapons
Test Safety Committee told national radio : “No such thing can possibly occur.
I don’t know of any black mists. No black mists have ever been reported until
the scare campaign was started. …If you investigate black mists sure you’re
going to get into an area where mystique is the central feature.”
(Source: “The British Nuclear Weapons Programme 1952 – 2002”, Editors
Douglas Holdstock and Frank Barnaby. Cross, Roger, Chapter Nine, “British
Nuclear Tests and the Indigenous People of Australia”, pp 81,
ISBN 0- 7146-8317-5,
Frank Cass & Co, London.}

If the USSR had delivered the same fallout over the same area of Australia as Britain did, it would have started World War 3

The USSR is no more. Bombadiers though as still in charge of public health in some countries it seems.

Japanese Cabinet Nuke Advisor Quits over Gov. “stop gap” measures.

April 30, 2011

http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/20110430p2a00m0na005000c.html
Quote
The Mainichi Daily News

Cabinet nuclear advisor resigns in protest over government response to plant crisis

A nuclear advisor to the Cabinet has resigned in protest against government stopgap measures that deal with the ongoing nuclear crisis in Fukushima Prefecture.

Toshiso Kosako, 61, a University of Tokyo professor specializing in radiation safety, submitted a letter of resignation to the Prime Minister’s Office on April 29.

During a press conference held at the Diet building later that day, Kosako, who was named a special advisor to Prime Minister Naoto Kan on March 16, criticized the government’s handling of the crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant as shortsighted.

In particular, Kosako protested against the government’s decision to revise the maximum permissible level of radiation exposure among children up to 20 millisieverts per year, saying, “Should I approve that decision, I would no longer be a researcher. I would not want my children to be exposed to that amount of radiation.”

Kosako revealed the Cabinet did not accept his advice that outdoor school activities for elementary and junior high school students near the crippled power station be restricted to prevent them from being exposed to over 1 millisievert of radiation per year.

“It is quite rare for nuclear power plant workers dealing with radioactive materials to be exposed to 20 millisieverts of radiation per year. I cannot allow infants and children to be exposed to such high levels of radiation from an academic as well as humanitarian point of view.”

He also pointed out that the government was slow in applying the System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (SPEEDI) and disclosing its data, even though nuclear safety guidelines stipulate the system be implemented immediately in an emergency. “The government has ignored the law and taken stopgap measures, failing to bring the crisis under control promptly,” he said.

Seiki Soramoto, Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) member of the House of Representatives, also attended the press conference and said, “I want to drive the situation in the right direction by telling my fellow lawmakers that it’s a mistake that the government set the radiation exposure limit for children at 20 millisieverts per year.”

Soramoto, one of the DPJ lawmakers close to former party head Ichiro Ozawa, had been working on the issue in collaboration with Kosako.

During a House of Representatives Budget Committee meeting on April 30, Kan, who appointed six nuclear experts and others as special advisors on the Fukushima crisis after the March 11 disasters, responded, “The government has taken into account the opinions of special advisors in making the decision. I don’t believe our response was shortsighted.”

end quote.

Japan’s Busby?

Green Peace Marine radiation monitoring blocked by Japanese government

April 29, 2011

http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/Blogs/makingwaves/marine-radiation-monitoring-blocked-by-japane/blog/34491

Quote
Marine radiation monitoring blocked by Japanese government
Blogpost by Ike Teuling – April 28, 2011 at 15:59

Since the start of the Fukushima disaster I have been following the worrying developments from a safe distance in Amsterdam, but suddenly, I am on rocking ship getting closer to the disaster area every day. I joined the Rainbow Warrior a week ago in Keelung, Taiwan. Normally I work for Greenpeace Netherlands as a nuclear campaigner, but my radiation expertise was needed on board to guarantee the safety of the crew.

Now we are getting closer to Fukushima, the Japanese government has begun obstructing our efforts to do independent research. The sparse data published by the government and TEPCO is not enough to understand the real risks of the continuous leakage of radioactive water in the sea. The Japanese people are great need of independent information on the radioactive contamination of their seafood supply. Therefore, we are planning to do research on the radioactive contamination of seaweed, fish and shellfish.

Despite this great need for information, the Japanese government today refused a permit to do research within the territorial waters of Japan. We are allowed to conduct research outside this 12 mile zone, but this is not the area where the Japanese catch their fish and collect their seaweed.

This is a critical situation, so we are not giving up. We will continue heading for Fukushima to begin our research at a distance while we pursue further permission to carry out the sampling within the 12 mile limit. The Japanese government should welcome such independent monitoring, the fact is they can never have enough information about the extent of the contamination, and the public are entitled to the benefit from the scrutiny and pressure that independent monitoring brings. end quote

J Cowgill’s message re Fukushima Water

April 29, 2011

Mr Cowgill writes: “I’ve been on a monthlong battle to try to get my tried-and-true method into the proper hands. Virtually no one answered my hundreds of contact eMails. TEPCO, NHK, MEXT, Japanese gov, etc. They should have answered. The liquids would have been dealt with long ago, having required a minimum of human involvement. Now, of course, their final solution will be to use a small nuclear explosion to raise temperatures to a degree sufficient to incinerate most of the radioactive materials, and passing the radioactivity into the air. Oh, we”ll be hearing the old “Dilution is the solution!” nonsense, over and over.

My method is quick, simple, easy, and used by me in the late 1970s inside a uranium mill.

You turn the water into cement or concrete, allow to dry, break it up, ship to any opertaing uranium mill on earth to process this “manmade ore”!

No one cared enough to respond, so what was I to do? I even wrote several US politicians, including House Leader John Boehner. Oh well.

Thank you.

J Cowgill
USA”

US DOE NNSA UPDATE FUKUSHIMA

April 28, 2011

“An assessment of measurements gathered through April 20 continues to show:
Radiation levels continue to decrease
No measurable deposit of radiological material since March 19
US bases and facilities all measure dose rates below 32 microrem/hr (32 millionths of a REM) – a level with no known health risks

Agricultural monitoring and possible intervention will be required for several hundred square kilometers surrounding the site:
Soil and water samples are the only definitive method to determine agricultural countermeasures
Ground monitoring can give better fidelity to identify areas that require agricultural sampling.” US DOE NNSA. Radiological Assessment - of effects from - Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant April 22, 2011

http://www.energy.gov/news/10194.htm

New York Times cites confidential NRC Fukushima Report

April 28, 2011

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/06/world/asia/06nuclear.html
New York Times
U.S. Sees Array of New Threats at Japan’s Nuclear Plant
By JAMES GLANZ and WILLIAM J. BROAD
Published: April 5, 2011
Quote:
United States government engineers sent to help with the crisis in Japan are warning that the troubled nuclear plant there is facing a wide array of fresh threats that could persist indefinitely, and that in some cases are expected to increase as a result of the very measures being taken to keep the plant stable, according to a confidential assessment prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. …The document, which was obtained by The New York Times, provides a more detailed technical assessment than Japanese officials have provided of the conundrum facing the Japanese as they struggle to prevent more fuel from melting at the Fukushima Daiichi plant. But it appears to rely largely on data shared with American experts by the Japanese. …..The document also suggests that fragments or particles of nuclear fuel from spent fuel pools above the reactors were blown “up to one mile from the units,” and that pieces of highly radioactive material fell between two units and had to be “bulldozed over,” presumably to protect workers at the site. The ejection of nuclear material, which may have occurred during one of the earlier hydrogen explosions, may indicate more extensive damage to the extremely radioactive pools than previously disclosed. ….Even so, the engineers who prepared the document do not believe that a resumption of criticality is an immediate likelihood, Neil Wilmshurst, vice president of the nuclear sector at the Electric Power Research Institute, said when contacted about the document. “I have seen no data to suggest that there is criticality ongoing,” said Mr. Wilmshurst, who was involved in the assessment. …The N.R.C. report suggests that the fuel pool of the No. 4 reactor suffered a hydrogen explosion early in the Japanese crisis and could have shed much radioactive material into the environment, what it calls “a major source term release.”

Experts worry about the fuel pools because explosions have torn away their roofs and exposed their radioactive contents. By contrast, reactors have strong containment vessels that stand a better chance of bottling up radiation from a meltdown of the fuel in the reactor core. ” End Quote

why is the info on the Fukushima samples so poor?

April 28, 2011

Jason writes:

“Ive been trying to get more info on this disaster and have found it lacking, why is the info on samples so poor or not been released for us all to know is beyond me. ive found a TEPCO site releasing its sample reports on nuclides in air ,water and land but 131,134,137 is the only samples shown!please take a look and tell me if im wrong by saying that the plant is hiding the trueth!http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/press/corp-com/release/index-e.html”

Thanks for that link Jason. Andrew K at Idealis.ws is having the same trouble, so am I.

I do not know the mechanisms of release and transport for all the fission products and fuel. Cesium, for example, has a melting point of 26 C and this probably accounts for its presence as fallout and as a water contaminant. None the less, it took a week for the mass media to ask the question “what is in the cloud?” The ABC did ask and Dr Grimes answered “Iodine and Cesium”.

However, the Japanese media have reported Radio strontium has been found as a fresh fallout, and radio Lanthanum has been found.
The early reports of three bursts of neutron streams from at least one of the reactors indicates, maybe, spontaneous fission in molten fuel. And means the creation of fresh fission products at those times. If that supposition is correct.

The US authorities have taken soil samples from the fallout zone around Fukushima and a report will no doubt come from that some time. The US NRC composed a confidential report which included the composition of the Fukushima fallout. The New York Times obtained a copy of the report. The New York Times information mentions the presence of 8 fission radionuclides present in the Fukushima fallout. The New York Times does not name them.

We are all just waiting around for the infomation, meanwhile, the usual places in the mass media are still talking about Radio Cesium and Radio Iodine only.

It’s handy for the industry. But sooner or later the truth will come out. Hopefully some independent person or group will run some soil samples through a mass spectrometer. Then we will know.

Until there’s an official disclosure, it’s anyone’s guess. Maybe that’s what TEPCO wants, maybe it isn’t. I don’t know. But I hazard a guess the delay in disclosure serves some purpose in the deemed national interest.

Back in the bad old days of bomb testing, the AEC ran around pronouncing on Strontium 90. That was one out of 250 and more.

BLACKMIST 10 ADDENDUMS, RESPONSES, SOURCES, REFERENCES

April 28, 2011

Letter of Permission from Lallie Lennon

Letter of Permission from Michele Madigan

Letter from CEO ARPANSA, Carl-Magnus Larsson,
14 May 2010, denying any effect on health from fallout from
atomic bombs detonated in Australia

Email dated 24 Nov 2010 from Solicitor Andrew Collett, pointing
out that on the basis of evidence produced, an Australian court
found that nuclear fallout in Australia caused Lallie’s medical condition.

A properly formatted edition of the Blackmist Incident can be downloaded from Andrew’s Idealist site at

http://www.idealist.ws/theblackmist.php

Letter from Commonwealth Government March 2010

Letter from State Government March 2010

Letter from British High Commission,Canberra, dated
9 Feb 2010, stating “I am very sorry that you recieved no reply
to the questions that you put on 23 July 2001…”
Better late than never, Col C.M. Hainge, Military and Air Adviser.

IAEA – no response.
The Arpansa letter
a

a

Sources and Notes
Part 1 Introduction
[
1] LETTER TO C T DURHAM, SUBJECT: RELATIVELY HEAVY
FALLOUT ON THE MARSHALL ISLANDS MARCH 1, 1954
Author(s): FIELDS, K.E.
Document Location: DOE/NV Nuclear Testing Archive, P.O. Box 98521, City:
Las Vegas,
State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521, Phone:(702)295-0712,
Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov
Document Type: CORRESPONDENCE, LETTERS, MEMOS
Publication Date: 1957 Apr 01 US DOE Accession Number: NV0137186
[
2] “KILLING OUR OWN – The Disaster of America’s Experience with
Atomic Radiation”, Harvey Wasserman & Norman Solomon with Robert
Alvarez & Eleanor Walters A Delta Book 1982, Part 4, “Test Fallout, Political
Fallout” Chapter 31, “The Islanders”, quoting magistrate John Anjain’s eye
witness account.
[
3]BBC record and film footage, “On this Day”, BBC London,
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/1/newsid_2781000/27
81419.stm
[
4] Lapp, Ralph, “The Voyage of the Lucky Dragon”, National Library of
Australia Bibliographic Data: Bib ID 1032679
Format Book Author Lapp, Ralph E. (Ralph Eugene), 1917-
Description Harmondsworth : Middlesex Penguin, 1958.
Series Penguin special ; S172, Notes First pub. 1957.
Subjects Radioactivity – Physiological effects. | LuckyDragon [Fishing boat]
[
5] Time Magazine, “How Fatal is the Fallout”, 22 Nov 1954. Citing the Nov
1954 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, the Time article states “The fission
bomb will act as a detonator, starting the explosion of “fusion” ingredients
such as heavy hydrogen and lithium. The end product of the fusion reaction is
likely to be rich in free neutrons, which can enter almost any material, make it
radioactive and create vast amounts of radioactivity….. the H-test of March 1,
1954, whose “death ash” killed a Japanese fisherman 72 miles away, and
injured 236 Marshall Islanders and 28 Americans. Physicist James R. Arnold
of the University of Chicago, who describes these events in the Bulletin, gives
no estimate of the amount or kind of radioactivity released by that climactic
explosion”]
[
6] ROSENTHAL, A.M., “Marshall Islanders Protest To U. N. on Nuclear
Tests”; Special to The New York Times, May 15, 1954, Saturday].
[
7] Cronkite, E.P., “MEMO, SUBJECT: BIOPSIES OF SKIN”, Unclassified,
CASTLE OPERATION; BRAVO EVENT; BETA LESIONS; BETA BURNS;
SKIN BIOPSIES; MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE, DOE/NV Nuclear Testing
Archive, P.O. Box 98521, City: Las Vegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521,

Phone:(702)295-0712, Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov,
Department of Energy Opennet Accession Number: NV0407568.
[
8] “SHEEP LOSSES IN UTAH – AUTOPSY CORRESPONDENCE”
(PEARSON, TERRILL, SPENDLOVE, HOLMES, BROWER )
EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED BETA BURNS
Document Location: DOE/NV Nuclear Testing Archive, P.O. Box 98521, City:
La Vegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521, Phone:(702)295-0712,
Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov Publication Date: 1953 Nov 09
Declassification Status: Never Document Pages: 0145
Accession Number: NV0020588 Originating Research Org.: UTAHDEPARTMENT
OF HEALTH.
[
9] “AEC MEMO FOR INFORMATION – REPORT ON SHEEP LOSSES
ADJACENT TO THE NEVADA PROVING GROUNDS”
Author(s): PEARSON, P.B. (* AEC-DIVISION OF BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE)
Subject Terms: SHEEP; BETA LESIONS; IODINE 131; UPSHOT
OPERATION; STRONTIUM 90; YTTRIUM 90; INJURIES; THYROID;
RADIATION DOSES; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; UPSHOTKNOTHOLE
OPERATION Document Location: DOE/NV Nuclear Testing Archive, P.O.
Box 98521, City: LasVegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521, Phone:(702)295-
0712 Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov Publication Date: 1953 Dec
16Accession Number: NV0121804;
[
10] “LETTER TO C A BRESNAHAN, SUBJECT: ACKNOWLEDGE
LETTER OF DECEMBER 18 RE THE EFFECT OF RADIOACTIVE
FALL-OUT MATERIAL ON LIVESTOCK.” Dec 1953 [10]
Author(s): PEARSON, P. B. (AEC-DIVISION OF BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE)
Subject Terms: UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE OPERATION; ANIMALS; LIVESTOCK;
FALLOUT; RADIOACTIVITY; EFFECTS; DOMESTIC ANIMALS; BETA
PARTICLES; INJURIES; CATTLE; HORSES; NEVADA TEST SITE (NTS)
OPERATIONS
Document Location: DOE/NV Nuclear Testing Archive, P.O. Box 98521, City:
Las Vegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521, Phone:(702)295-0712,
Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov
Document Type: CORRESPONDENCE, LETTERS, MEMOS
Publication Date: 1953 Dec 28 Declassification Status: Never
Accession Number: NV0404939, Pearson states: “It is of course, a matter of
record that in some tests by the Commission there has been sufficient fallout
to produce beta radiation lesions on cattle and horses.”
[
11] “LETTER TO J C BUGHER: MEETING ABOUT LIVESTOCK
LOSSES AROUND NPG (SHEEP, CATTLE, HORSES)” ( 25948 )
Author(s): PEARSON, P.B. Subject Terms: DOMESTIC ANIMALS;
INJURIES; HORSES; CATTLE; LESIONS; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS;
SAMPLING; SHEEP; BETA LESIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RANCHERS;
IODINE 131; RADIATION EFFECTS; ANIMALS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Document Location: DOE/NV Nuclear Testing Archive, P.O. Box 98521, City:
Las Vegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521, Phone:(702)295-0712,
Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov
Document Type: CORRESPONDENCE, LETTERS, MEMOS
Publication Date: 1953 Jun 21 Declassification Status: Never
Accession Number: NV0001290
Originating Research Org.: ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION-DIVISION OF
BIOLOGY AND Medicine]
[
12] 85th Congress 1st Session JOINT COMMITTEE JOINT COMMITTEE
ON ATOMIC ENERGY SUMMARY-ANALYSIS OF HEARINGS MAY 27-29,
AND JUNE 3-‘7,1957 ON THE NATURE OF RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT AND
ITS EFFECTS ON MAN AUGUST 1957, Printed for the use of the Joint
Committee on Atomic Energy UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING
OFFICE 8.57190 WASHINGTON : 1957, P935 STATEMENT OP DE.
EUGENE P.CEONKITE, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY]
[
13]“This rain, which almost had the consistency of tar, was a combination of
the ash, radioactive fallout, and water. In at least some cases, severe
radiation burns resulted.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory courtesy of David
Fields. Last updated: 07/25/07 Copyright 1999, Oak Ridge Associated
Universities. http://www.orau.org/ptp/collection/hiroshimatrinity/blackrain.htm”%5D
[
14] “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Compiled and Edited by Samuel
Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan, in 1950. The Third Edition, prepared and
published by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE and the
ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, was
released in1977. Preface and Chapter 12.
[
15] ] McClellland et. al., “The Report of the Royal Commission into
British Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two
volumes, Volume 1 para 6.4.45, pp 183, citing J.D. MacDougall.
[
16] ibid.
[
17] McClellland et al, “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two volumes, Vol. 1,
paragraph 3.1.21.
[
18] Many people testified to film makers and journalists, to the Royal
Commission and to anyone else who would listen of the horror of the Black
Mist. These people include Lallie Lennon, Bruce Lennon, Jessie Lennon,
Yami Lester and the people with him, Eileen Brown and many others.
[
19] “Summary document of T1/77 and T2/80, “UK Atmospheric Nuclear
Weapons Tests in Australia, Oct 1952 –Oct 1957”, UK Ministry of Defence,
Official Information.”
[
20] “The British Nuclear Weapons Programme 1952 – 2002”, Editors
Douglas Holdstock and Frank Barnaby. Cross, Roger, Chapter Nine, “British
Nuclear Tests and the Indigenous People of Australia”, pp 81,
ISBN 0- 7146-8317-5,
Frank Cass & Co, London.
21] Lester, Yami, “The Autobiography of Yami Lester”, IAD Press, 1993,
ISBN 1 86465 025 7
[
22] McClellland et al, “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two volumes,
paragraphs 6.4.12 to 6.4.16]
[
23] “Backs to the blast an Australian nuclear story”/ production and
direction, Harry Bardwell, Adelaide : Composite Films [for] Australian Film
Commission, Creative Development Branch, 1981, video recording.
[
24] Recorded conversation between Lallie Lennon and Michele Madigan,
Port Augusta, South Australia, December 2009. This conversation was
communicated to me in writing.
[
25] Royal Commission document “bratom 20.4.85 ttll dj, Lallie Lennon
Sworn”, pp 7155 – 7158, see also Lallie’s oral history of 2006.
[
26] Communication to me from Michele Madigan, January 2010. Letter of
permission from Lallie Lennon, dated 31/12/2009. Letter of permission from
Michele Madigan dated 31/12/2009.
[
27] Johnstone Archive http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/nuclear/tests/UKntests1.
html
Official UK documents confirming the coordinates are not available to me.
[
28] Calculated using the online calculator located at http://www.movabletype.
co.uk/scripts/latlong.html
[
29] Bolt, Andrew, “Solely test on atomic tests”, Herald Sun ,
20.10.03.
[
30] Photo 1 Source: Gallagher, Carole, “American ground zero : the
secret nuclear war”, ISBN: 0262071460 Publisher: [Cambridge, Mass. : MIT
Press],1993. Pp 116 -117. Joe Fallini, Photographer. Photograph given to
Martha Bordoli Laird by Joe Fallini. Photograph for Government and IAEA
edition only. This photograph is not public domain. This photograph will be
deleted from the public edition of this Paper. General readers are urged to
consult the original text cited.
[
31] Photo 2 Source: Miller, Richard L., “Under the Cloud: the Decades of
Nuclear Testing”, New York: Free Press, London: Collier Macmillan, 1986,
ISBN: 0029216206. PP: 315. See also pages 225, 257, 283 & 300 for
accounts of Fallini’s observations regarding the clouds he photographed. This
photograph is deleted in the public edition of this paper. The photograph is
copyright and must not be reproduced from the government and IAEA editions
of this Paper.
[32] McClelland et. al., “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, Volume 1, paragraph 6.4.51, pp 185.
Commonwealth of Australia, 1985, ISBN 0 644 04434 9.
[
33] McClelland et. al.,”The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, Volume 1, paragraph 6.4.52, pp 185,
Commonwealth of Australia, 1985, ISBN 0 644 04434 9.
[
34] McClelland et. al., “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two volumes,
paragraph 6.3.65 (a). Vol 1.
[
35] McClelland et. al., “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, Volume 1, paragraph 6.4.52, pp 185,
Commonwealth of Australia, 1985, ISBN 0 644 04434 9
[
36] U.S. Congress, House Committee on Interstate and Foreign
Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, The
Forgotten Guinea Pigs, 96th Cong., 2nd sess., Committee Print 96-1FC 53,
August 1980, p. 37.
[
37] Royal Commission document “bratom 20.4.85 ttll dj, Lallie Lennon
Sworn”, pp 7155 – 7158, see also Lallie’s oral history of 2006.
[
38] McClelland et. al., “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, Volume 1, paragraph 6.4.92, pp 194.
Commonwealth of Australia, 1985, ISBN 0 644 04434 9.
[
39] McClelland et. al., “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, Volume 1 para 6.4.45, pp 183, citing J.D.
MacDougall. Commonwealth of Australia, 1985, ISBN 0 644 04434 9
[
40] The “Diagnosis and Treatment of Local Radiation Injuries, Module
XIII” IAEA. Current publication. This publication is available for download at:
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/eprmedt/Day_3/Day_3-
10.pps
In relation to skin lesions this publication states that where radiation may be a
factor, “Radiation must be considered” in the diagnosis of the condition.
[
41] “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Compiled and Edited by Samuel
Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan, in 1950. The Third Edition, prepared and
published by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE and the
ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, was
released in1977. Chapter 12, “Biological Effects”, Section “Effects of Early
Fallout”, Sub Section “External Hazard Beta Burns”, paragraphs 12.133 –
12.162 pp 594 – 597, including 4 photographs of people suffering Beta Burns
due to contact with early fallout. One such photograph appears on page 598.
[
42] McClellland et al, “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two volumes,
paragraph 3.1.21. This reference to Glasstone et. al. demonstrates that the
Royal Commission had access to the publication.
[
43] “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Compiled and Edited by Samuel
Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan, in 1950. The Third Edition, prepared and
published by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE and the
ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, was
released in1977. Chapter 12, “Biological Effects”, Section “Effects of Early
Fallout”, Sub section “Internal Hazard”, paragraphs 12.163 -12.174. pp 597 –
601.
[
44] Source: “Atomic Fallout”, Volume 3 , No 9, Nov/Dec 2003 Pages 4 – 8.
Atomic ExServicemens’ Association, Qld, Australia.
[
45] Martha Unganpari Edwards, Antikirinya, “We Saw Her at Wynbring –
Martha and Daisy Bates and Other Stories of My Young Life”, Nyiri
Publications, Murray Bridge, South Australia, 2008. “The Soldier Policeman,
oh jump on every (railway train) truck, looking out. He saw the biggest mob
then. (Hitiching a ride on the train from Ooldea) Oh he tell ‘em to get off – the
whole lot. We got off. Then we all there Watson, and all the soldier policeman
came and they say, “Don’t look around! Just look at the ground!” ….”They
said it in nice way, just quietly – but we not allowed to look around. They didn’t
want us to see nothing.” Pp23-25. Watson of course was the major railhead
for the British Nuclear Tests.
[
46] Royal Commission document “bratom 20.4.85 ttll dj, Lallie Lennon
Sworn”, pp 7155 – 7158, see also Lallie’s oral history of 2006.
[
47] STATEMENT OF DR EUGENE P. CRONKITE, BROOKHAVEN
NATIONAL LABORATORY GIVEN DURING HEARINGS BEFORE THE
SPECIAL SUB – COMMITTEE ON RADIATION OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE
ON ATOMIC ENERGY CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, EIGHTYFIFTH
CONGRESS FIRST SESSION, ON THE NATURE OF RADIOACTIVE
FALLOUT AND ITS EFFECTS ON MAN,MAY 27, 28, 29, AND JUNE 8, 1957
PART IPrinted for the use of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, pp 947 –
948.
[
48] document “OPERATION SANDSTONE RADIATION INJURIES” 1948.
(Available at
http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/doe_marshall_isl/3351_.html )
[
49] McClelland et. al., “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two volumes,
paragraph 6.3.65 (a). Vol 1
Part 2 Lallie’s Transcripts.
[
1] “Backs to the Blast, an Australian nuclear Story”, production and
direction, Harry Bardwell, Adelaide, South Australia: Composite Films [for]
Australian Film Commission, Creative Development Branch, 1981. Video
recording.
A Transcript of an Interview with Lallie Lennon and Michele Madigan,
Port Augusta, May 2006. A follow up editorial interview took place on
31/12/09 at Port Augusta.
Photo 3. Military Vehicle Convoy enroute to Emu Field, 1953. Atomic Ex-
Servicemen’s Association, “Atomic Fallout”, Vol. 3, Number 4, June/July,
2001. Atomic Ex-Servicemen’s Association A.C.T. Inc.
Photo 4. Military Vehicle Convoy, enroute to Maralinga. Atomic Ex-
Servicemen’s Association, “Atomic Fallout”, Vol. 1, Number 12, March-June,
1992, pp. 15. Atomic Ex-Servicemen’s Association, “Atomic Fallout”, Vol. 3,
Number 4, June/July, 2001. Atomic Ex-Servicemen’s Association A.C.T. Inc.
Photo 5. Lallie Lennon, 1981. Stillframe. “Backs to the Blast, an Australian
nuclear Story”, production and direction, Harry Bardwell, Adelaide, South
Australia: Composite Films [for] Australian Film Commission, Creative
Development Branch, 1981. Video recording.
Photo 6. Lallie Lennon, 1981. Stillframe. “Backs to the Blast, an Australian
nuclear Story”, production and direction, Harry Bardwell, Adelaide, South
Australia: Composite Films [for] Australian Film Commission, Creative
Development Branch, 1981. Video recording
Photo 7. Lallie Lennon, 1981. Stillframe. “Backs to the Blast, an Australian
nuclear Story”, production and direction, Harry Bardwell, Adelaide, South
Australia: Composite Films [for] Australian Film Commission, Creative
Development Branch, 1981. Video recording
Photo 8. Lallie Lennon, 2006. Photographed by Michele Madigan, Port
Augusta.
Photo 9. Lallie Lennon 2006. Photographed by Michele Madigan, Port
Augusta.
Photo 10. Lallie Lennon, 2006. Photographed by Michele Madigan, Port
Augusta.
Photo 11. Lallie Lennon, 2006. Photographed by Michele Madigan, Port
Augusta.
Photo 12. Kukkika by Michele Madigan, Coober Pedy, circa 1990s.
Photo 13. Kukkika, by Michele Madigan, Coober Pedy, circa 1990s.
Photo 14. Source: Alexander, Peter, “Atomic Radiation and Life”, Penguin
Books, A399, Middlesex, England, 1957, Photoplate 9b. See also page 103.
“7 year old “South Sea Islander” girl.” “Feet irradiated by bomb Fall-out”.
“Permanent loss of (skin) pigment”. British Text.
Photo 15. Source: Marshall Island victim of Castle Bravo Fission Product skin
contact.. Skin Turned White. “Effects of Nuclear War”, Compiled by
Glasstone, S., Published: Congress of the United States, Office of Technology
Assessment, 1979, pp 384.
Part 3 The Royal Commission’s Finding regarding “Comparable”
Foreign Nuclear Weapons Blasts.
[
1] Source: McClelland et al, “The Report of the Royal Commission into
British Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two
volumes para 6.4.45, pp 183, citing
J.D. MacDougall. This passage is particularly relevant to particle size and
contamination distribution).
[
2]“Evaluation of Radioactive Fallout”, Armed Forces Special Weapons
Project, 1955, AFSWP-976B (EX) Extracted Version, (partially declassified
version) 1981, United States of America, page 14.
[
3] Cronkite, E.P., “MEMO, SUBJECT: BIOPSIES OF SKIN”, Unclassified,
CASTLE OPERATION; BRAVO EVENT; BETA LESIONS; BETA BURNS;
SKIN BIOPSIES; MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE, DOE/NV Nuclear Testing
Archive, P.O. Box 98521, City: Las Vegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521,
Phone:(702)295-0712, Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov,
Department of Energy Opennet Accession Number: NV0407568.
“SHEEP LOSSES IN UTAH – AUTOPSY CORRESPONDENCE”
(PEARSON, TERRILL, SPENDLOVE, HOLMES, BROWER )
EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED BETA BURNS
Document Location: DOE/NV Nuclear Testing Archive, P.O. Box 98521, City:
La Vegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521, Phone:(702)295-0712,
Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov Publication Date: 1953 Nov 09
Declassification Status: Never Document Pages: 0145
Accession Number: NV0020588 Originating Research Org.: UTAHDEPARTMENT
OF HEALTH.
“AEC MEMO FOR INFORMATION – REPORT ON SHEEP LOSSES
ADJACENT TO THE NEVADA PROVING GROUNDS”
Author(s): PEARSON, P.B. (* AEC-DIVISION OF BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE)
Subject Terms: SHEEP; BETA LESIONS; IODINE 131; UPSHOT
OPERATION; STRONTIUM 90; YTTRIUM 90; INJURIES; THYROID;
RADIATION DOSES; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; UPSHOTKNOTHOLE
OPERATION Document Location: DOE/NV Nuclear Testing Archive, P.O.
Box 98521, City: LasVegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521, Phone:(702)295-
0712 Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov Publication Date: 1953 Dec
16Accession Number: NV0121804;
“LETTER TO C A BRESNAHAN, SUBJECT: ACKNOWLEDGE
LETTER OF DECEMBER 18 RE THE EFFECT OF RADIOACTIVE
FALL-OUT MATERIAL ON LIVESTOCK.” Dec 1953 [10]
Author(s): PEARSON, P. B. (AEC-DIVISION OF BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE)
Subject Terms: UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE OPERATION; ANIMALS; LIVESTOCK;
FALLOUT; RADIOACTIVITY; EFFECTS; DOMESTIC ANIMALS; BETA
PARTICLES; INJURIES; CATTLE; HORSES; NEVADA TEST SITE (NTS)
OPERATIONS
Document Location: DOE/NV Nuclear Testing Archive, P.O. Box 98521, City:
Las Vegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521, Phone:(702)295-0712,
Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov
Document Type: CORRESPONDENCE, LETTERS, MEMOS
Publication Date: 1953 Dec 28 Declassification Status: Never
Accession Number: NV0404939, Pearson states: “It is of course, a matter of
record that in some tests by the Commission there has been sufficient fallout
to produce beta radiation lesions on cattle and horses.”
“LETTER TO J C BUGHER: MEETING ABOUT LIVESTOCK
LOSSES AROUND NPG (SHEEP, CATTLE, HORSES)” ( 25948 )
Author(s): PEARSON, P.B. Subject Terms: DOMESTIC ANIMALS;
INJURIES; HORSES; CATTLE; LESIONS; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS;
SAMPLING; SHEEP; BETA LESIONS; RADIATION DOSES; RANCHERS;
IODINE 131; RADIATION EFFECTS; ANIMALS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
Document Location: DOE/NV Nuclear Testing Archive, P.O. Box 98521, City:
Las Vegas, State: NV, Zip: 89193-8521, Phone:(702)295-0712,
Fax:(702)295-1808, Email:cic@nv.doe.gov
Document Type: CORRESPONDENCE, LETTERS, MEMOS
Publication Date: 1953 Jun 21 Declassification Status: Never
Accession Number: NV0001290
Originating Research Org.: ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION-DIVISION OF
BIOLOGY AND Medicine]
85th Congress 1st Session JOINT COMMITTEE JOINT COMMITTEE ON
ATOMIC ENERGY SUMMARY-ANALYSIS OF HEARINGS MAY 27-29, AND
JUNE 3-‘7,1957 ON THE NATURE OF RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT AND ITS
EFFECTS ON MAN AUGUST 1957, Printed for the use of the Joint
Committee on Atomic Energy UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING
OFFICE 8.57190 WASHINGTON : 1957, P935 STATEMENT OP DE.
EUGENE P.CEONKITE, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY]
[
4] Source: McClelland et al, “The Report of the Royal Commission into
British Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two
volumes, paragraph 3.1.21.
[
5] “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Compiled and Edited by Samuel
Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan, Third Edition, Prepared and published by the
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE and the ENERGY
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, 1977. Preface.
[
6] ibid.

[7] “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Compiled and Edited by Samuel
Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan, Third Edition, Prepared and published by the
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE and the ENERGY
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, 1977, Chapter 12,
“Biological Effects”, Section “Effects of Early Fallout”. Sub Section
“External Hazard: Beta Burns”.
[
8] McClellland et al, “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two volumes para
6.4.45, pp 183, citing J.D. MacDougall.
[
9] “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Compiled and Edited by Samuel
Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan, Third Edition, Prepared and published by the
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE and the ENERGY
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, 1977. para 9.12 cited
by the McClelland et al, “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two volumes,
paragraph 3.1.21.
[
10] See Source 3 above.
[
11] McClelland et al, “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two volumes para
6.4.45, pp 183, citing J.D. MacDougall.
[
12] See source 3 above and:
Gallagher, Carole, “American ground zero : the secret nuclear war”, ISBN:
0262071460 Publisher: [Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press],1993. Photos of skin
lesions inflicted upon Americans. Record of skin lesions on livestock.
U.S. Congress, House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce,
Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, The Forgotten Guinea
Pigs, 96th Cong., 2nd sess., Committee Print 96-1FC 53, August 1980.
The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 24 April 1979, article entitled “Nuclear Test
Victim Testifies”.
“The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Compiled and Edited by Samuel
Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan, Third Edition, Prepared and published by the
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE and the ENERGY
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, 1977, Chapter 12.
“Evaluation of Radioactive Fallout”, Armed Forces Special Weapons
Project, 1955, AFSWP-976B (EX) Extracted Version, (partially declassified
version) 1981, United States of America.
The Oral Histories and testimony of Lallie Lennon, 1981, 1985, 2006, 2009.

Part 4 Military and Civilian Descriptions of Beta Radiation Burn to Skin
through the Years. Including Lallie’s 1985 Description.
[
1] “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Compiled and Edited by Samuel
Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan, in 1950. The Third Edition, prepared and
published by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE and the
ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, was
released in1977.
[
2] Alexander, P., “Atomic Radiation and Life”, Penguin Books, A399,
Middlesex, England, 1957, Photoplate 9b. See also page 103.
[
3] McClelland et. al., “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, Volume 1, paragraph 6.4.92, pp 194.
Commonwealth of Australia, 1985, ISBN 0 644 04434 9.
[
4] 85th Congress 1st Session JOINT COMMITTEE JOINT COMMITTEE ON
ATOMIC ENERGY SUMMARY-ANALYSIS OF HEARINGS MAY 27-29, AND
JUNE 3-‘7,1957 ON THE NATURE OF RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT AND ITS
EFFECTS ON MAN AUGUST 1957, Printed for the use of the Joint
Committee on Atomic Energy UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING
OFFICE 8.57190 WASHINGTON : 1957, P935 STATEMENT OP DE.
EUGENE P.CEONKITE, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY
86th Congress 1st Session. BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR WAR. Part 1 980 Pages JUNE 22-26, 1959,
AUGUST 1959 Printed for the use of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1959
[
5] Armed Forces Special Weapons Unit Project, “Evaluation of Radioactive
Fallout”. AFSWP-978 (EX), United States of America, September 15, 1955,
extracted version. Some parts remain classified. Pp 85 -86. Emphasis added.
[
6] 86th Congress 1st Session. BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR WAR. Part 1 980 Pages JUNE 22-26, 1959,
AUGUST 1959 Printed for the use of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1959
380 EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR WAR BETA RADIATION SKIN LESIONS
(BETA BURNS) FROM FALLOUT RADIATIONS
[
7] Lallie Lennon’s Oral History, 2006.
[
8] Alexander, P., “Atomic Radiation and Life”, Penguin Books, A399,
Middlesex, England, 1957, Photoplate 9b. See also page 103.
[
9] Glasstone, S., Dolan, P.J., “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Third
Edition, Prepared and published by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
DEFENSE and the ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
ADMINISTRATION, 1977. pp 595 -597.

[
10] Royal Commission document “bratom 20.4.85 ttll dj, Lallie Lennon
Sworn”, pp 7155 – 7158, focused on Lallie’s skin condition. Other pages
describe other suffering including the signs and symptoms of Acute Radiation
Sydrome in 1953 concurrent with the latent phase preceding the eruption of
the skin condition 2 weeks later.
[
11] Glasstone et. al., Preface, first sentence.
[
12] Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, Final Report to
the President, Key Recommendation 1, See also Chapter 15, United States
of America,1995.
[
13] “Cutaneous Radiation Injury: Fact Sheet for Physicians”. Fact Sheet,
Centres for Disease Control, Department of Health and Human Services,
United States of America, 9 Nov 2009, online publication.
[
14] “Diagnosis and Treatment of Local Radiation Injuries, Module XIII”
IAEA. Current publication. This publication is available for download at:
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/eprmedt/Day_3/Day_3-
10.pps
[
15] Gynaecological Cancer Society Website, drug Information at:
http://www.gcsau.org/resources/methotrexate.asp)
Part 5 Observations of and the Nature of Bomb Smoke.
External and Internal Harms.
[
1] Lennon, Jessie, “I’m the One that Know this Country, the Story of
Jessie Lennon and Coober Pedy”, Aboriginal Studies Press for the Institute
of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, 2000, ISBN: 0
85575 351 X, pp 95, 97.
[
2] document “OPERATION SANDSTONE RADIATION INJURIES” (Available
at http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/doe_marshall_isl/3351_.html )
[
3] (RC para 6.4.45, pp 183, citing
J.D. MacDougall). None the less, as we have seen, the Royal Commission
relied on US publications such as Glasstone et al (The Effects of Nuclear
Weapons”).
[
4] ] document “OPERATION SANDSTONE RADIATION INJURIES”
(Available at
http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/doe_marshall_isl/3351_.html )
[
5] Lennon, Jessie, “I’m the One that Know this Country, the Story of
Jessie Lennon and Coober Pedy”, Aboriginal Studies Press for the Institute
of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, 2000, ISBN: 0
85575 351 X, pp 95, 97. )

Lallie Lennon, Oral History, 2006.
[
6] ] document “OPERATION SANDSTONE RADIATION INJURIES”
(Available at
http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/doe_marshall_isl/3351_.html )
Lennon, Jessie, “I’m the One that Know this Country, the Story of Jessie
Lennon and Coober Pedy”, Aboriginal Studies Press for the Institute of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, 2000, ISBN: 0 85575
351 X, pp 95, 97.
Lallie Lennon, Oral History, 2006.
[
7] document “OPERATION SANDSTONE RADIATION INJURIES” (Available
at http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/doe_marshall_isl/3351_.html )
Page numbers given in text.
[
8] Ibid.
[
9] “THE NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE PARTICLES VI.
FALLOUT PARTICLES FROM A TOWER SHOT, OPERATION REDWING”,
Research and Development Technical Report USNRDL-TR-208 NS 081-001,
2 December 1957, C. E, Adams, J. D, O’Connor, Chemistry- Technical
Objective Radiation and Radiochemistry AW-7. Applied Research Branch,
E. R. Tompkins, Acting Head, Chemical Technology Division E. R. Tompkins,
Head Scientific Director P. C. Tompkins, Commanding Officer and Director
Captain J. H. McQuilkin, USN.”
[
10] “Evaluation of Radioactive Fallout”, Armed Forces Special Weapons
Project, 1955 AFSWP-976B (EX) Extracted Version, 1981,United States of
America, page 14.
[
11] “UK Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Tests in Australia, Oct. 1952 –
Oct. 1957, Ref AWRE Classified Reports T1/77 and T2/80. UK
Government (Ministry of Defence) Official Information”. This document
gives the following specification for the Totem 1 nuclear detonation and
dispersal of fission products: Totem 1: Emu Field, SA: Site: T1 : Type: NSB
(Near Surface Bust) MS (Mild Steel) Tower: Hieght (at detonation) : 31 Feet:
Measure Yield (kiloton) : 9.1.
[
12] “THE NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE PARTICLES VI.
FALLOUT PARTICLES FROM A TOWER SHOT, OPERATION REDWING”,
Research and Development Technical Report USNRDL-TR-208 NS 081-001,
2 December 1957, C. E, Adams, J. D, O’Connor, Chemistry- Technical
Objective Radiation and Radiochemistry AW-7. Applied Research Branch,
E. R. Tompkins, Acting Head, Chemical Technology Division E. R. Tompkins,
Head Scientific Director P. C. Tompkins, Commanding Officer and Director
Captain J. H. McQuilkin, USN.”
“Evaluation of Radioactive Fallout”, Armed Forces Special Weapons
Project, 1955 AFSWP-976B (EX) Extracted Version, 1981,United States of
America, page 14.
[
13] “THE NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE PARTICLES VI.
FALLOUT PARTICLES FROM A TOWER SHOT, OPERATION REDWING”,
Research and Development Technical Report USNRDL-TR-208 NS 081-001,
2 December 1957, C. E, Adams, J. D, O’Connor, Chemistry- Technical
Objective Radiation and Radiochemistry AW-7. Applied Research Branch,
E. R. Tompkins, Acting Head, Chemical Technology Division E. R. Tompkins,
Head Scientific Director P. C. Tompkins, Commanding Officer and Director
Captain J. H. McQuilkin, USN.”
[
14] Ibid.
[
15] Lallie Lennon Oral Histories of 1981 and 2006
[
16] Lennon, Jessie, “I’m the One that Know this Country, the Story of
Jessie Lennon and Coober Pedy”, Aboriginal Studies Press for the Institute
of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, 2000, ISBN: 0
85575 351 X, pp 95, 97.
[
17] document “OPERATION SANDSTONE RADIATION INJURIES”
(Available at
http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/doe_marshall_isl/3351_.html )
[
18] “THE NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL RADIOACTIVE PARTICLES VI.
FALLOUT PARTICLES FROM A TOWER SHOT, OPERATION REDWING”,
Research and Development Technical Report USNRDL-TR-208 NS 081-001,
2 December 1957, C. E, Adams, J. D, O’Connor, Chemistry- Technical
Objective Radiation and Radiochemistry AW-7. Applied Research Branch,
E. R. Tompkins, Acting Head, Chemical Technology Division E. R. Tompkins,
Head Scientific Director P. C. Tompkins, Commanding Officer and Director
Captain J. H. McQuilkin, USN.”
[
19] “Evaluation of Radioactive Fallout”, Armed Forces Special Weapons
Project, 1955 AFSWP-976B (EX) Extracted Version, 1981,United States of
America.
[
20] Lallie Lennon Oral Histories, 1981, 2006.
Lennon, Jessie, “I’m the One that Know this Country, the Story of Jessie
Lennon and Coober Pedy”, Aboriginal Studies Press for the Institute of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, 2000, ISBN: 0 85575
351 X, pp 95, 97.
[
21] AWRE Classified Reports T1/77 and T2/80. UK Government (Ministry
of Defence) Official Information.
Varney, R. L., “The British Nuclear Tests: Was the Test Policy Indifferent
to Human Suffering?”, Thesis, Bachelor of Technology, University of
Adelaide,2000. Chapter 6, “The Nuclear Tests”, citing the Report of the
McClelland Royal Commission Report.
http://www.pariahnt.org/pages/Bob_Varney_Thesis-Ch6.htm
Citing Titterton: “…I was subject to American control on
information .. I was subject to the Official Secrets Act…”
[
22] “UK Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Tests in Australia, Oct. 1952 –
Oct. 1957, Ref AWRE Classified Reports T1/77 and T2/80. UK
Government (Ministry of Defence) Official Information”.
[
23] Varney, R. L., “The British Nuclear Tests: Was the Test Policy Indifferent
to Human Suffering?”, Thesis, Bachelor of Technology, University of
Adelaide,2000. Chapter 6, “The Nuclear Tests”, citing the Report of the
McClelland Royal Commission Report.
http://www.pariahnt.org/pages/Bob_Varney_Thesis-Ch6.htm
[
24] Major Alan Batchelor (retired) and Australian Nuclear Veterans
Association.
[
25] “The Effects of Nuclear Weapons”, Compiled and Edited by Samuel
Glasstone and Philip J. Dolan, in 1950. The Third Edition, prepared and
published by the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE and the
ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, was
released in1977. Chapter 12, “Biological Effects”, Section “Effects of Early
Fallout”, Sub section “Internal Hazard”, paragraphs 12.163 -12.174. pp 597 –
601.
[
26] Wasserman, H., Solomon N., “KILLING OUR OWN Chronicling the
Disaster of America’s Experience with Atomic Radiation, 1945-1982 “
Chapter 3, citing Joseph L. Lyon, et al., “Childhood Leukemias Associated
with Fallout from Nuclear Testing,” New England Journal of Medicine,
February 22, 1979, pp. 397-402. Available at:
http://www.ratical.com/radiation/KillingOurOwn/index.html#TOC
[
27] “Mortality and Cancer Incidence Main Findings”, Department of
Veterans Affairs, Commonwealth of Australia.
Full texts available at:
http://www.dva.gov.au/aboutDVA/publications/health_research/nuclear_test/P
ages/index.aspx
[
28] “Nuclear Fuel Particles in the Environment – Characteristics, Atmospheric
Transport, and Skin Doses” Pollanen, R., STUK – Radiation and Nuclear
Safety Authority
University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, May 2002. Pp 52 – which
states: “In a state of an acute radiation emergency, the recommended
intervention actions such as sheltering and evacuation are based on the
measurement of the external dose rate. Basic protective actions against hot
particles are presumably appropriate in almost all practical situations.
However, the problem that highly active particles may be present in the air
although theexternal dose rate is below the recommended operative action
level (forexample, the recommended external dose rate limit for sheltering is
100 μSv h-1) is not only theoretical. The management of this situation
requires special knowledge and equipment that are not necessarily available
to the staff operating in field conditions. The possibility that highly active
particles may serve as an additional health threat must be evaluated case by
case based on expert judgement by the authorities familiar with radiation
protection issues.”
No personnel were so equipped and operating at Mintabie on 15 October
1953. There was no seeking of radiometric data for fuel or fission particles in
the presence of Lallie Lennon and her family. This is an ancient issue:
http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/histories/0468/0468toc.
html
DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Conducted December 22,
1994 United States Department of Energy Office of Human Radiation
Experiments September 1995 DOE/EH-0468
HUMAN RADIATION STUDIES: REMEMBERING THE EARLY YEARS
Oral History of Radiation Biologist Marvin Goldman, Ph.D.
Conducted December 22, 1994, at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in
Berkeley, California by Loretta Hefner, archivist for the Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory, and Karoline Gourley, an attorney and researcher for the Office of
Human Radiation Experiments, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
“I was involved in tethering animals in [radial arcs] around ground zero. The
bomb would go off and then I’d hurry in there, suited up like a Martian, to
rescue the animals and bring them back to be studied. It wasn’t an idea of
killing them [with radiation]; rather it was to find out what happened. …..
….So I did these autoradiographs and discovered something which we now
call “hot particles”. I found [a] plutonium hot particle in the lung of an animal,
and that was the first autoradiograph of a hot particle.” Dr Marvin Goldman
describes his discovery of the first “hot particle”. This was 1953.
DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Conducted December 22,
1994 United States Department of Energy Office of Human Radiation
Experiments September 1995 DOE/EH-0468
HUMAN RADIATION STUDIES: REMEMBERING THE EARLY YEARS
Oral History of Radiation Biologist Marvin Goldman, Ph.D.
Conducted December 22, 1994, at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in
Berkeley, California by Loretta Hefner, archivist for the Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory, and Karoline Gourley, an attorney and researcher for the Office of
Human Radiation Experiments, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/histories/0468/0468toc.
html
The British claim to have discovered the same prior to Dr Goldman.
From this, the controversy over which size range and under what
circumstances hot particles are retained has raged. The same controversy
does not exist for external skin doses to Beta emitters. These are admitted to
cause Beta radiation burn. The key to understanding lies with informed and
fully qualified specialist Health Physics diagnosis.
Part 6 Events, Denials and Exclusions.
[
1] “Atomic Fallout”, Volume 3 , No 9, Nov/Dec 2003 Pages 4 – 8. Published
by the Atomic Ex-Servicemen’s Association, A.C.T. Inc.
[
2] McClellland et al, “The Report of the Royal Commission into British
Nuclear Tests in Australia”, ISBN 0 644 04434 9, Set of two volumes,
6.4.41 pp 183.
[
3] Wise, K.N., Moroney, J.R., “Public Health Impact of Fallout from British
Nuclear Weapons Tests in Australia, 1952 – 1957”, Australian Radiation
Laboratory, Commonwealth of Australia, ARL/TR 105, ISSN 0 157-1400, May
1992, (reprint) pp. 2.
[
4] “Commonwealth of Australia Parliamentary Debates HOUSE OF
REPRESENTATIVES Official Hansard, TUESDAY, 10 AUGUST 1999,
THIRTY NINTH PARLIAMENT FIRST SESSION—FOURTH PERIOD,
CANBERRA”.
[
5] The Hon Bruce Billson MP, Minister for Veterans’ Affairs, Minister
Assisting the Minister for Defence, Federal Member for Dunkley, email to Mr.
Paul Langley, March 2006.
[
6] IAEA publication “Diagnosis and Treatment of Local Radiation
Injuries, Module XIII”. This is available at :
www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/eprmedt/Day_3/Day_3-10.pps
[
7] National Archives of Australia document Title: “Department of Aboriginal
Affairs – Atomic Weapons tests health effects.” Series Number A6456
Control Symbol R008/003 Contents Date Range: circa 1950 – circa 1985,
Access Status: Open. Location: Canberra. Barcode: 4141378, Viewable
online digital copy.

I think, from within the depths of my little unqualified (my only quals are military basic radiac, circa 1971) pea brain (apparently) that it might be a good idea if the people of the radiation affected areas of Fukushima took note of all of this, just in case, heaven forbid, TEPCO tries the same sorts of tricks as those apparently who were and remain OHMS. At the time all this happened to Lallie Lennon, she was not allowed to be an Australian Citizen, was not allowed to vote, but she was most definately a Subject of the Queen of England and Australia.

How long do we have to wait for the truth?

A properly formatted version of the Black Mist Incident can be downloaded from Andrew’s
Idealist.ws website at

http://www.idealist.ws/theblackmist.php

THE BLACKMIST INCIDENT 9

April 28, 2011

Part 7
Conclusion
Photographs taken in the United States in the year 1953 and in other years
depict extremely low level and ground level nuclear clouds and mists created
by the detonation of nuclear weapons. One of these was photographed by
Joe Fallini 100 miles from the Nevada Shot Point. Such photographs were
released to the public by Richard Miller in 1986 and by Carol Gallagher in
1993 with the permission of photographer Joe Fallini and Martha Bordoli
Laird. The US military released relevant photographs at various dates. The
Australian low level rolling nuclear Mist/s is/are not unique. The colour of
such Mists or clouds depends largely on the soil characteristics present at the
different nuclear test sites.
Lallie Lennon witnessed such a ground level cloud at Mintabie, about 112
miles from the Totem 1 shot point on 15 October 1953.
There is a conformity of observation and outcome between Australian
Aboriginal people in 1953 and US service personnel in 1948. This is not the
result of “mystique”. It is the result of common radiological features rendered
predictable on the basis of science and technique.
Lallie’s and others’ descriptions conform also to the deeply technical
descriptions and photographs of individual particles which comprised nuclear
weapons clouds and the clouds themselves as authored by the United States
Armed Forces.
The Beta Burn Injuries suffered by the Marshall Islanders in March 1954 after
their contact with nuclear fallout from the Castle Bravo event have been
described and photographed extensively. The skin disorders suffered by Lallie
and her son Bruce after exposure to the Black Mist in October 1953 bear a
striking similarity to the injuries suffered by the affected people of the Marshall
Islands. Those people were diagnosed by United States authorities as
suffering from Beta Radiation Burns resulting from their contact with the
nuclear fallout.
Lallie’s baby daughters, shielded under the tent, did not suffer these injuries.
They suffered symptoms compatible with acute radiation syndrome, as did
Lallie and Bruce. These symptoms are claimed by sections of the mass media
as being in fact the flu. However, Australian Army Radiological Safety notes
given to me during my Army training describe radiation sickness as including
“flu like symptoms”. I am happy to argue the toss with Andrew Bolt but he
failed to respond to my offer.
Lallie and Bruce, standing in the open watching for the blast as the result of
the nature and content radio announcement that conveyed no precautionary
information, suffered injury as a result of contact with the Black Mist.
Protections against Beta Burn to skin were standard operating procedures
set in place by 1948 by military forces of the United States. No information
regarding safety procedures were given to Australians down wind of British
nuclear tests at any time.
From 1953 to the 1980s Lallie Lennon states she asked for but failed to
receive any diagnosis for her skin condition. Lallie states that in the 1980s
she tried to tell medical staff of her contact with the 1953 fallout cloud. She
states that she was not listened to. She and her son remain under treatment
with medications normally used for other conditions. This is dual use of
general medicines in a Health Physics treatment setting and was pointed out
by Glasstone et al, as a treatment concept in 1977. He was referring to
treatments instituted from 1954 onwards.
Where radiation is a potential cause of illness, current IAEA training material
relating to Beta Skin Injury from contact with fission products states that
Radiation must be considered in the diagnosis. This appears not to have
happened in the case of Lallie Lennon’s diagnosis. This is in breach of IAEA
guidelines for local radiation injury.
Lallie and others appeared before the McClelland Royal Commission with
their skin lesions visible to assembled experts. This occurred 3 decades after
the Castle Bravo disaster which caused so many acknowledged cases of Beta
Radiation Burn. No comment was made by the assembled experts in regard
to these Australian Beta Radiation Burn injuries.
There comes a time when the maintenance of secrecy becomes damaging to
individuals and to democracy itself. Acting appropriately and openly toward
Lallie Lennon and other witnesses to the Black Mist is not constrained by the
dictates of the United States as claimed by Titterton. It is controlled by the
Australian Government. If my other country, the United Kingdom, is
restraining the Government of Australia in these matters, then its time for a
referendum regarding the basis for that matter.
I
am not able to fully appreciate the cultural differences that exist between
myself and Lallie. A person of greater insight that I needs to read the words
spoken by Lallie in the context of the questions put to her, both in 1981 on
film, her statements for and to the Royal Commission and in 2006 and 2009 to
Michele Madigan.
I
n the matter of what happened to Lallie and her children in October 1953,
Lallie is the most qualified to comment. She was there. We were not. Some of
us should have been. There was apparently no shortage of military vehicles
with which to mount a response.
The Aboriginal witnesses describe compound clouds, experienced symptoms
of acute radiation syndrome including vomiting and flu like symptoms, and
display skin lesions of very close, of extremely similar, appearance to the
lesions diagnosed as Beta Radiation Burns due to contact with nuclear fallout
by United States authorities in 1954. Glasstone et al describes differences in
the signs of radiation exposure between different ethnic groups. There are
racial differences in the manifestation of radiation induced biological
responses.
A study of the Black Mist reveals no mystique in the statements of the
witnesses. It reveals that science and technique underpins technical
descriptions of fallout clouds. Descriptions that conform to Aboriginal witness
statements. This conformity includes their descriptions of cloud characteristics
and it also extends to their descriptions of the skin and other conditions they
suffered as a result of contact with the nuclear bomb cloud.
The Aboriginal Australian descriptions of the Black Mist and of the conditions
suffered conform to the descriptions of fallout clouds and their biological
effects contained within Military texts written by and for members of the
Armed Forces trained in “Special Weapons” and their use on the battle field.
The publication was secret until 1981. In 1985 Lallie was learning to read and
write English and had no access to the formerly secret text.
It is very highly likely Lallie Lennon and her family suffer Beta Radiation Burns
and other effects caused by the detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Lallie Lennon and her family are entitled to accurate and fully qualified
diagnosis in this context.
They have not received this yet. The events described occurred in 1953.
I urge authorities to put in place the means by which this may be obtained.
Paul Langley
February 2010

THE BLACKMIST INCIDENT 8

April 28, 2011

Part 6 Events, Denials and Exclusions.
RAAF and USAF Totem 1 Cloud Chasing – Portions of the Cloud were
“lost”. The Experiences of RAAF and USAF Aircrews Chasing the Totem
1 Atomic Cloud.
As much as some authorities and commentators may deny the existence of
ground level nuclear clouds, Beta Skin Lesions inflicted upon people and
other harms, there are in fact public record. The Totem 1 cloud broke up and
portions were officially lost:
The United States Air Force took part in the “chasing” of the Totem 1 atomic
bomb cloud. The American B29 bombers were crewed by personnel who
were veterans of many such exercises. They, along with their RAAF
counterparts, lost track of portions of the cloud. The flight logs and debrief
materials and the testimony of the personnel involved would seem invaluable.
“The two USAF B29s had difficulty relocating these patchy clouds of
radioactivity after flying through them. The American crews, veterans of
US atomic tests and experienced atomic cloud chasers, stated that the activity
was the most intense they had ever encountered. Their on board detection
instruments had reached Full Scale Deflection (FSD) and remained at FSD
until after the aircraft had landed.” “a confused situation was seen to be
developing. In an attempt to reconcile the two sets of reports and locate the
main Totem 1 cloud, the RAAF Richmond Controller, taking his
meteorological information into account, suggested that two possible paths
existed for the cloud: One north then north-westerly; the other north- easterly
then south-easterly.”
“A single RAAF Lincoln was dispatched to reconnoitre both paths to establish
two separate clouds had developed and how the cloud contacted by the
USAF B29s was moving.” Positive contact was made with a radioactive cloud
over Charleville, Western Queensland. The Lincoln was then instructed to
continue with the original search plan but it later transpired that the crew had
not known their position accurately and had been lost after the first fix near
Charleville. The aircraft was guided home to Williamstown RAAF base after a
flight of nearly 12 hours. The crew reported that they had visually sighted a
cloud and that their radiation detection instruments had shown Full Scale
Deflection. The remaining RAAF aircraft were sent to RAAF Garbutt, north of
Townsville. This seemed appropriate as the cloud appeared to be moving in a
north easterly direction. The area south east of Townsville was searched from
H + 44 and H + 51 hours, at a distance of 1,100 miles from Emu Field. The
aircraft flew spaced 60 nautical miles apart. On their return to RAAF Garbutt
all the aircraft filters showed radioactivity even though its was probable the
wrong area had been searched as a result of the invalid 800 miles report by
the earlier single Lincoln flight. Post event analysis confirmed that the cloud
centre passed over Townsville about the time the first Lincoln aircraft was
preparing for take off and that they may all have passed through the cloud as
they were gaining altitude after take off.” [1]

There is basis in fact for acknowledging that the remote, civilian witnesses on
the ground knew more precisely where some of the missing portions of the
Totem 1 cloud were than did the aircrews in Lincoln and B29 aircraft. This is
because portions of the cloud were at ground level, several thousand feet
below the flight paths. The radiation of those portions of the clouds which did
remain at height and which were found were observed by trained US B29
personnel to be “the most intense they had ever encountered”. Yet the Royal
Commission relied upon modeling created under orders by atomic test
authorities. Obviously direct reading of a radiac instrument gives an
immediate evidence based result. Even the most sophisticated algebra years
later will be at best self serving in the results produced. The modeling of the
Black Mist presented to the Royal Commission tendered a much lower level of
radioactivity than was reported by the flew crews.
This Black Mist “lost” portion rolled through land occupied by Aboriginal and
other remote witnesses. The portion Titterton officially mocked in his official
capacity. For example, of the British mathematical model of the Totem 1
cloud, Roach stated “All I can say is that I have been able to fiddle the model
to produce a Black Mist…..” [2] The assumption that the Black Mist did not
contain fireball material, that it was primarily stem deposition, will be
examined in a later section. The witnesses weren’t fiddling. They were
accurately observing the suffering the cloud caused.
Lallie’s tent captured the fallout. Lallie observed it do so. It is crucial evidence
she was never asked about. What happened to the tent? What is the
diagnosis of her skin condition from the perspective of a Health Physics
setting?
On 1 March 1954, five months after the 15 October 1953 Totem 1 Black Mist
harmed so many, USAF B29 again chased a nuclear cloud. It was called the
Castle Bravo nuclear bomb cloud. Portions of it fell upon the inhabitants of the
Marshall Islands, causing Beta Radiation Burns, other radiation related illness
and death and causing death injury to the crew of the Japanese fishing
vessel Daigo Fukuryū Maru. Déjà vu for those aircrew.
The repeated exclusion of Aboriginal people from health surveys.
“Two population groups are excluded from the (Exposure Dose) calculations.
They are the Aboriginals living away from population centres and the
personnel involved directly in nuclear test activities. Otherwise, the total
population is represented in the estimated radiation doses.” [3]
I
n other words, those most affected were excluded.
The Howard government originally promised to include Aboriginal people and
Pastoralists in the health study announced in 1999. The responsible minister,
Bruce Scott, MP, stated: “I have announced the compilation of a nominal roll
of ex-service personnel involved in the testing and also civilians, aborigines
and pastoralists, for whom information is available. This nominal roll will be
used to conduct mortality and cancer incidence studies of Australians involved

in the UK nuclear tests. This will enable the Government to determine if
current compensation and assessment arrangements are sufficient.” [4]
I
n March 2006 the then responsible minister, Mr. Bruce Billson, MP, emailed
me as follows: “Indigenous Australians were excluded from the study because
there is no available list of Indigenous Australians who were present in the
areas of the tests at the time. In the 1950s and 1960s the indigenous
population was not counted in the census and there were no records kept of
Indigenous Australians who lived in the test areas.” [5]
This exclusive act is abhorrent and disgusting. The authorities did not want to
know in the 1950s. And today Ministers of the Crown justify exclusion from
study on the grounds of lack of knowledge. To an open mind, ignorance is a
call to study, not a barrier to it.
So again, the obvious signs of external contact with Beta emitters – residual
Beta radiation burn damage – has been ignored, along with the probable
internal dose, as recently as 2006. By excluding affected people, their skin
would not have to be looked at in the light of the Bomb tests.
T
he beta burns carried by Australians date from 1953. 1952 was not a good
year either. Every official instrument created to examine the impact of the
atomic tests has failed to admit the evidence these beta burns present. For
they represent both as proof of suffering and as technical biological markers
of external dose received.
The skin lesions can be read as a form of dose marker from which actual
external dose can be determined. [6]
The Other Black Cloud
The Royal Commission paragraph 6.4.51, page 185, records the report of a
Black Cloud in 1956. It was not a ground level cloud. This report is based on
a message sent “restricted priority” to the “Director Maralinga”. The message
relayed Officer MacDougall’s report that “men employed at Ingomar who were
camped 15 miles West of Mount Pemrhyer Bore on 27th September (1956
added in pen to the original document) report that a very Black Cloud
detached itself from the main cloud and traveled Northwards and then
rejoined the main cloud. ….At night when they were in bed particles of sandy
dust were hitting their canvas camp sheets very similar to raindrops. Message
ends. …” [7]
The Director Maralinga was William Penney. There is no record of any Health
Physics response. But the report is not contested as are the reports of similar
events where the reporters were not members of the British group. Perhaps
Andrew Bolt could research why these things are so. Why an event reported
by people approved by the British is believed, while those reports from “non
approved people” are questioned to this day.

Titterton’s job was to ensure the Atomic Tests were safe. From whom?
Unauthorised witnesses.
Where civilian doctors “unauthorized” to diagnose weapons related biological
effects inflicted upon Australians? Did this affect Lallie Lennon’s diagnosis in
1957?