“Radiation sickness” as defined in diagnositic descriptions published by US CDC preclude long term expsoures. The exposures must be “acute” in order for a diagnosis to be made:
However, some symptoms are acknowledged as being suffered by patients who experience treatment level doses of radiation as part of treatment for cancer.
Do such cancer patients suffer symptoms accepted as being caused by radiation exposure which are also being suffered now by the people living in areas of Japan contaminated by fallout from the TEPCO nuclear power plants? The qualified medical information for patients confirms that radiation induced fatigue is in fact a common side effect of treatment doses of radiation exposures within oncology.
People living in radiation hot zones and who suffer similar symptoms, describing these symptoms in public, are, so far as I can gather, described universally by Japanese nuclear authorities as being ‘weak minded’ prior to any independent of the cumulative dose these people may have suffered? Are the people reportin radiation related symptoms merely the canaries in the Fukushima mine? So the abuse of these citizens by Japanese authorities a further sign of the obsessive and inhumane adherence to the priniciples of radiation hormesis?
Is a gigantic cover up underway in Japan as nuclear authorities try to claim a monopoly of expertise over medicine as well as nuclear technology? Where are Japan’s and the world’s medical radiologists when the people of the hot zones need them? The questions are technical and require a qualified technical and medical response. The role of doctors with a social concscience is crucial in Japan.
Radiation Hormesis, which I believe to be the false cornerstone of Japan’s nuclear authorities, has a hard time coping with cumulative dose. For various reasons.
Llet’s look at the advice given to sufferers of radiation induced fatigue within the setting of oncology. I emphasise that the issue is the response to radiation, not the reason for it. In Japan there is no medical benefit to the 10 months of cumulative dose. In medicine there are costs (immediate symptoms, long term risks) and benefits (extended life, fewer symptoms from the disease being treated, so on). In Fukushima there was a healthy population, now there is a population increasingly displaying symptoms of radiation exposure which any medical radiologist would recognise as being radiation related. Instead of being treated properly, the Japanese government responds by accusing its victims as being “weak minded”.
I know who to label as being “weak souled” in this matter.
To restate the case for serious investigation: A key symptom shared between radiation treatment dose patients in hospitals and the symptoms reported among the people in radiation affected areas of Japan is fatigue. Its not the only one, but, on the face of it, given the copious medical literature and patient reports, it is the easiest one to compare.
Japanese authorities accuse people in Japan of being “mentally weak” if they report symptoms in the context of Fukushima.
This stands in stark contrast with the medical acknowledgement to medical patients by medical authorities that radiation exposure during medical treatment causes fatigue. That is concrete.
It appears that nearly 10 months of living in reactor contaminated areas has subjected people to a dose equal to or exceeding the cumulative dose which might produce fatigue. That is, an entire population appears to have suffered the equivalent of a treatment dose for no medical reason. It has produced no benefit, only harm.
Radiation Related Fatique as documented in Onclogy related publications:
From Medscape Medical News
Radiation Therapy–Induced Fatigue Linked to Inflammation
“August 18, 2009 — Fatigue is one of the most common and disabling adverse effects of cancer treatment, but exactly why it occurs has not been well understood. Now, preliminary data suggest that activation of the proinflammatory cytokine network may be largely responsible for fatigue that is experienced during radiotherapy.
According to a report in Clinical Cancer Research, there is an association between fatigue and downstream biomarkers of cytokine activity. In particular, increased levels of the interleukin (IL) 6 cumulative exposure biomarker C-reactive protein and the IL-1β cumulative exposure biomarker IL-1 receptor antagonist were associated with a higher frequency and severity of fatigue.
The authors note that these effects could not be accounted for by other variables, including age, body mass index, depressed mood, or sleep disturbance.
This research provides insight into the biological mechanisms underlying radiation-induced fatigue and is an important step forward, commented Stephen Hahn, MD, chair of the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia…..Dr. Hahn, who was not involved in the study, explained that the study suggests one possible mechanism for radiation therapy–associated fatigue as well as an avenue for treatment. “There are compounds under development that may block these inflammatory substances,” he told Medscape Oncology. “As those compounds come into clinical use, it would be useful to study them as measures to counteract radiation fatigue…..In this study, Dr. Bower and colleagues tested the hypothesis that activation of the proinflammatory cytokine network is associated with the fatigue experienced by patients with early-stage breast and prostate cancers who are undergoing radiation therapy.” end quote.
How Can I Reduce Fatigue from Radiation Treatment? Andrea Barsevick, R.N., Director, Nursing Research and Education, Fox Chase Cancer Center
September 25, 2007
Question: What can I do to reduce fatigue caused by my radiation treatments?
Answer: There are two ways that you can manage your fatigue. First, if your fatigue is because of anemia, you can talk to your doctor about that and get your anemia treated. But if your fatigue is not caused by anemia — if it’s just the general fatigue that accompanies radiation therapy — then the most effective way that we have for managing that right now is exercise. Exercise has been shown in several research studies to be a very effective way of managing not only the fatigue that you feel, but also, if there’s any sleep disturbance, reducing that — and in that way, reducing fatigue. The exercise does not have to be on any grand scale. In fact, one of the studies was done using simple walking exercise, just women walking around their neighborhood, who were undergoing radiation therapy for breast cancer. And they reported much less fatigue and much less problems with sleeping because they were exercising regularly.
Next: What Is Fibrosis, And Does Radiation Cause It?
Previous: What Is the Difference Between Cancer-Related Fatigue and Normal Everyday Fatigue?
More from ABC News
How to Cut Fatigue from Radiation?
Cancer Fatigue vs. Normal Fatigue?
ABC News OnCall+ Breast Cancer Center Home Page
What Is Fibrosis, And Does Radiation Cause It? end quote.
If we look at the mechanism by which the fatigue is produced, we find that the biochemicstry involved is one which has been written about since 1957. I read about this in Atomic Radiation and LIfe by Peter Alexander. In simple terms, radiation hits the cell contents and turns some of the water into cells in H and O ions – free radicals. These reactive “species” create chemical havoc. Eventually, the H and O recombine to form Hydrogen Peroxide. The body’s biochemical defence is via the release of NO, a highly reactive chemical, which scavenges radicals and and interacts with the undesirable and mutagenic chemicals formed in the cell.
Here a couple of papers which describe the responses of the body to radiation induced fatigue.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews 23: 311–322, 2004.
# 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Manufactured in The Netherlands.
Metabolic oxidation/reduction reactions and cellular responses to ionizing
radiation: A unifying concept in stress response biology
Douglas R. Spitz1*, Edouard I. Azzam2, Jian Jian Li3 and David Gius4
1B180 Medical Laboratories, Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation
Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242; 2Department of
Radiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103; 3Radiation Biology, Division of
Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010; 4Radiation Oncology
Branch, Radiation Oncology Sciences Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH,
Bethesda, Maryland 20892
Exposure of eukaryotic cells to ionizing radiation (IR) results in the immediate formation of free radicals
that last a matter of milliseconds. It has been assumed that the subsequent alterations in multiple
intracellular processes following irradiation is due to the initial oxidative damage caused by these free
radicals. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular metabolic oxidation/reduction (redox)
reactions can be affected by this initial IR-induced free radical insult and may remain perturbed for
minutes, hours, or days. It would seem logical that these cellular redox reactions might contribute to the
activation of protective or damaging processes that could impact upon the damaging effects of IR. These
processes include redox sensitive signaling pathways, transcription factor activation, gene expression, and
metabolic activities that govern the formation of intracellular oxidants and reductants. The physiological
manifestations of these radiation-induced alterations in redox sensitive processes have been suggested to
contribute to adaptive responses, bystander effects, cell cycle perturbations, cytotoxicity, heat-induced
radiosensitization, genomic instability, inflammation, and fibrosis. While a great deal is known about the
molecular changes associated with the initial production of free radicals at the time of irradiation, the
contribution of perturbations in redox sensitive metabolic processes to biological outcomes following
exposure to IR is only recently becoming established. This review will focus on evidence supporting the
concept that perturbations in intracellular metabolic oxidation/reduction reactions contribute to the
biological effects of radiation exposure as well as new concepts emerging from the field of free radical
biology that may be relevant to future studies in radiobiology.
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/lateeffects/HealthProfessional/page8 Treatment for Childhood Cancer
Childhood Cancer (PDQ®)
Late Effects of the Musculoskeletal System
The metabolic syndrome is highly associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. Definitions of the metabolic syndrome are evolving, but generally include a combination of central (abdominal) obesity with at least two or more of the following:
Atherogenic dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol).
Abnormal glucose metabolism (fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinism, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type II).
An increased risk of metabolic syndrome or its components has been observed among cancer survivors. Long-term survivors of ALL, especially those treated with cranial radiation, may have a higher prevalence of some, potentially modifiable, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity.[105,106] In a young adult cohort of ALL survivors (mean age 30 years), 62% had at least one cardiovascular risk factor and 30% had two or more. Another study observed no difference in prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 75 ALL survivors compared with a population-based control group. However, survivors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have growth hormone insufficiency or deficiency. Those treated with cranial radiation therapy also had an association with growth hormone abnormalities and were more likely to have two or more components of the metabolic syndrome compared with survivors who were not treated with cranial radiation therapy. A high frequency of cardiovascular risk factors has also been observed among hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. French investigators reported an overall 9.2% (95% CI, 5.5–14.4) prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of 184 ALL survivors (median age 21.2 years). Gender, age at diagnosis, corticosteroid therapy, or cranial radiation were not significant predictors of metabolic syndrome. However, hematopoietic cell transplantation with TBI was a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.9, P = .03). Other investigators have reported a significantly increased risk of hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus associated with exposure to TBI.[101,106] The association between TBI and excess risk for diabetes has also been observed by other investigators. These data suggest that survivors might benefit from targeted screening and lifestyle counseling regarding risk reduction measures.
Ionizing radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress and prolonged cell injury
Edouard I. Azzama, Corresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author,
Jean-Paul Jay-Gerinb, E-mail the corresponding author,
Debkumar Painc, E-mail the corresponding author
a Department of Radiology, UMDNJ – New Jersey Medical School Cancer Center, Newark, NJ 07103, United States
b Département de Médecine Nucléaire et de Radiobiologie, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke (Québec), Canada J1H 5N4
c Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, UMDNJ – New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07101, United States
Available online 17 December 2011.
In Press, Corrected Proof
Cellular exposure to ionizing radiation leads to oxidizing events that alter atomic structure through direct interactions of radiation with target macromolecules or via products of water radiolysis. Further, the oxidative damage may spread from the targeted to neighboring, non-targeted bystander cells through redox-modulated intercellular communication mechanisms. To cope with the induced stress and the changes in the redox environment, organisms elicit transient responses at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels to counteract toxic effects of radiation. Metabolic pathways are induced during and shortly after the exposure. Depending on radiation dose, dose-rate and quality, these protective mechanisms may or may not be sufficient to cope with the stress. When the harmful effects exceed those of homeostatic biochemical processes, induced biological changes persist and may be propagated to progeny cells. Physiological levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play critical roles in many cellular functions. In irradiated cells, levels of these reactive species may be increased due to perturbations in oxidative metabolism and chronic inflammatory responses, thereby contributing to the long-term effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on genomic stability. Here, in addition to immediate biological effects of water radiolysis on DNA damage, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in the delayed outcomes of ionization radiation. Defects in mitochondrial functions lead to accelerated aging and numerous pathological conditions. Different types of radiation vary in their linear energy transfer (LET) properties, and we discuss their effects on various aspects of mitochondrial physiology. These include short and long-term in vitro and in vivo effects on mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial protein import and metabolic and antioxidant enzymes
radiation fatigue as a harm: http://www.cfids-cab.org/MESA/Pall.pdf Post-radiation syndrome as a NO/ONOO– cycle,
chronic fatigue syndrome-like disease
Martin L. Pall *
School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4234, USA
Received 9 May 2008; accepted 12 May 2008
Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Exposure: Understanding the risk for Cellular Transformation”.“L.DE SAINT-GEORGES EUROPEAN RADIATION RESEARCH
The matter is complex. The Japanese authorities have a duty to rigourously examine the cumulative dose actually recieved by people in Japanese hotzones over the last ten months. How will the situation stand in ten months time. If the Japanese authorities are seriously committed to providing protection and medical care to its people, it must do more than attack the sick on the basis of a phony science called radiation hormesis.
Sources of information regarding the symptoms suffered by people living in Japanese hot zones.
“Fukushima Radioactive Contamination Symptoms Research (FRCSR): The research and collection of data due to the Fukushima nuclear accident. We have a monthly report that can be viewed at the end of the month by anyone interested. Our website is not just for those affected by Fukushima but also for anyone in the world that may have been exposed to radiation. Our hope is to improve the situation of those who are suffering from radioactive contamination anywhere in the world. Please contact us by e-mail if you have any questions or valuable information on these matters. This website is located in the United States of America and protected by the U.S. copyright laws.” Pity this site combines fatigue with panic and sleeplessness on the symptom map.
The story of fatigue as suffered by those people who entered Hiroshima AFTER the bomb:
Bomb survivor doctor continues to speak up about significance of internal exposure
“Internal radiation exposure has been around since the Hiroshima/Nagasaki days,” said 95-year-old doctor Shuntaro Hida. He has treated over 6,000 patients with bura-bura disease, a kind of fatigue seen among A-bomb survivors, and is himself a survivor of the Hiroshima bombing. His voice carried well inside the Yokohama auditorium where he was giving a lecture titled “The Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant Incident and Internal Radiation Exposure.”
“People who weren’t in Hiroshima or Nagasaki when the bombs fell, but went there a few days later searching for family members died mysteriously,” he said. Though Hida usually walks with a cane, his speech was an impassioned one that he gave for two hours on his feet.
Hida was stationed at an army hospital in Hiroshima in 1944. A first lieutenant doctor, he was in the city of Hiroshima’s Higashi Ward about 6 kilometers away from the bomb’s hypocenter when the bomb was dropped. Before the day was over, he had made numerous trips back and forth from the hypocenter, and later offered emergency medical treatment in the surrounding areas. Because of the sheer number of people who suffered horrendous burns, the mysterious phenomenon of people entering the city after the bombing and dying strange deaths went relatively unnoticed.
One woman arrived in Hiroshima a week after the bombing to look for her husband. After walking the ruins of the city for a week, they were reunited. However, when she was helping to take care of a critically injured patient, she developed a fever and purple spots on her skin. Her hair also fell out, and she vomited blood before she died.
Witnessing such a phenomenon, Hida and his colleagues came up with the concept of “city-entering radiation exposure.”
“The term ‘internal radiation exposure’ didn’t exist at the time,” Hida said. “Because these people entered the city and were exposed to radiation, we called it ‘ city-entering radiation exposure.’ We had no theory on why they were dying, though.”
According to Hida, among victims of “city-entering radiation exposure,” some died while others went on to live, albeit with various ailments.
Hida subsequently began union activities, and in 1950, opened his own clinic in Tokyo’s Suginami Ward. He later relocated to neighboring Saitama Prefecture and worked as an internist, while serving from 1979 to 2009 as the chair of the Japan Confederation of A- and H-Bomb Sufferers Organizations’ central consultation center.
During this time, atom bomb survivors flocked to see the rumored “radiation doctor.” They always came in the evening, right before the Hida’s clinic closed. They did not disclose at the reception desk that they had been exposed to radiation; Hida intuited from their behavior in the exam room that they were.
“Atom bomb survivors were at one time unable to take out life insurance policies. Countless survivors have been discriminated against in marriage, studies, employment, and other important life events,” Hida writes in his book, “Naibu hibaku no kyoi” (The Threat of Internal Radiation Exposure). “This is inherited by the second (children’s) generation, and the third generation . . . ”
Hida, who had seen so many atomic bomb survivors forced to live lives at the bottom rungs of society, continued for years to pursue the medical mechanism for “city-entering radiation exposure.” Some 30 years after the bombs had been dropped, Hida happened upon a paper about internal exposure written by an American researcher. Hida said he was dumbfounded when he read that many people affected by U.S.-run nuclear experiments had presented symptoms similar to bomb survivors in Japan. He then translated such papers into Japanese, and started speaking up about the dangers of internal radiation exposure in both Japan and abroad.
To his audience in Yokohama, Hida spoke about people who had survived direct damage from the bomb, but who after a few years were suffering from fatigue so intense that they could not sit up.
“They didn’t bleed, their hair didn’t fall out, they were suffering no visible ailments, and yet there were so many people claiming to be deathly exhausted. I’d examine them, and find nothing wrong. They were perceived to be lazy, and a patient’s family member named it “bura-bura” (an onomatopoeia describing someone hanging out and doing nothing) disease.
Bura-bura patients were mostly healthy people prior to radiation exposure, but now become easily ill. They feel lethargic, which keep them from sticking to work. Doctors examining them can find nothing out of the ordinary, which is why many have been labeled by friends and family as lazy.
After the lecture, Hida added: “To put it simply, it’s a generalized weakness in the body. You only have the patient’s word, and it defies categorization under modern medicine, so a doctor might diagnose it not as a physical illness but as a neurosis. Recently, a researcher on the Chernobyl disaster in the former Soviet Union told me there’s such a thing as “radiation fatigue” — thus named because people who had been exposed to radiation from the incident were tired. The way I see it, it wouldn’t be strange in the least if such symptoms were seen in Fukushima.”
The study of the long-term effects of radiation from atomic bombs on the human body was begun by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) established under President Harry Truman in 1947. The research base was relocated in 1975 to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), run cooperatively by the Japanese and U.S. governments and located in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The research results from activities there are reflected in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)’s radiological consequence evaluation. RERF is now involved in investigating the health conditions of Fukushima Prefecture residents.
The ongoing study, which primarily addresses external radiation exposure, has been criticized from some researchers and victims’ organizations for underestimating the risks of radiation exposure. Hida, meanwhile, has a theory on why no in-depth study of the internal radiation exposure of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bomb victims ever took place.
“If you kill someone in a war, you’re not guilty of a crime. But if we were to acknowledge that all these years later, people continue to die from the effects of the war and the bombs, the very existence of nuclear weapons would be on tenuous ground, because it would be considered an inhumane weapon. I think therein lies the reason why various countries refuse to acknowledge internal radiation exposure.” That is also probably why a causal relationship between radiation exposure and bura-bura disease has not yet been acknowledged.
Hida has spoken as a witness in lawsuits brought against the government by survivors seeking radiation sickness certification and benefits. He questions researchers’ claims that lifetime total radiation exposure of less than 100 millisieverts has no known health effects. The theory is worlds apart from the reality that he has seen among his patients over the years.
“I’ve felt a sense of duty for having survived the war and the bomb by chance. For the many people who experienced the bombings, I’ve stood up against the occupation forces and the Japanese government, who others have often deferred to. I have this ‘so what, I’m not doing anything wrong’ attitude at the core.”
Click here for the original Japanese story
(Mainichi Japan) January 23, 2012 end quote.
This is a long post, but the information is plentiful linking radiation exposure and fatigue. There are current studies aimed at further explaining the bio-chemical relationship between radiation and the response of the body.
I would look at this closed loop of stimulus and response as a metabolic syndrome. And the role of metabolic dysfunction is a hall mark which blights the lives of many downwinders from Nevada Test Site in the USA.
Which came first ? Metabolic dysfunction or a diseased thyroid?
It is the endocrine which plays a role in metabolic balance. This is probably true of radiation as it is in migraine and probably chronic fatigue syndrome. The same symptoms, and I have only picked one, so that I dont get overwhelmed by info, are common across the chronic inflamatory diseases. There is a very strong – in fact, concrete – link between radiation exposure and fatigue. Oncologists describe and their patients are given sensible answers and support.
Unlike the previously healthy sufferers of the same syndrome in radiation affected areas of Japan. I beleive doctors who see the same thing have a duty to speak up, where ever they are.
TEPCO has been protected enough. It’s time to stop bullying the people TEPCO and Japanese government know to be affected. Its time to respond to reality.
In relation to the events as they have unfolded in Japan since March 2011, the IAEA has shown itself to be concerned with that portion of its Charter which charges it with promotion of nuclear power. Seemingly to the exclusion of the protection and monitoring of the people living in TEPCO contaminated hot spots.
None the less, the fact is, that IAEA publications dealing with health effects caused by exposure to ionising radiation,
the IAEA’s own instruction is this: Where radiation is present, radiation must be considered in the diagnosis of disease.
Thermal burns or psorasis become Beta radiation burns, psychologically attributed fatique, vomitting and other symptoms become exposure to fission products in the school, home, backyard and food.
As much as such conclusions might not appeal to the IAEA, TEPCO and its seeming subsiduary, the Japanese government.
IF cumulative exposure doses are sufficient, after 10 months, to induce radiation related symptoms, then one has serious questions to ask about the state of Japan’s pregrant women, the fetus and the nursing mothers and children.
It seems to me that in another 10 months, either the truth will out, or the world nuclear industry will have for a short time won some time at the cost to the Japanese public and individual health.
The medical record shows that the response to radiation is individual and that mass pronouncements of “no harm” are hollow, empty and without basis. Any doctor administering radiation treatment monitors individauls being irradiated and adjusts subsequent treatment doses accordingly. This is particularly true during P32 and S89 internal radionuclide treatments. As Sr89 has been admitted to be released into the areas where people are forced to live, this concept of internal irradiation has a clear medical reality. And the internal hazard posed by all the emissions from Fukushima, on this same basis cannot be ignored. Yet this is what has happened. I have previously posted on the early attempts to calculate the equivalent whole body external radiation dose from small amounts of injected Sr89. (Peacher, 1942). A very small internalisation of the fission products results in radiation doses of huge values when the equivalent external exposures are considered. 1mg of injected Sr89 is equivalent, according to Pecher, to 600 r whole body external x ray (Univ California Press, editor C.D. Leake, 1942, posthumous).
Wake up Japan.
In the matter of using the example of people exposed to radiation in the course of cancer treatment, there is a clear precedent: The US Atomic Energy Commission’s Projects Gabriel and Sunshine. During the course of these, the AEC’s Libby, Hamilton and others attempted to monitor the progress of the (by then) late Dr Pecher’s injected Sr89 treatment. They did this by labelling his hospital patient notes “secret” and by arranging a special reprint of his seminal paper of 1942. This is clearly shown in the correspondence of Hamilton and others.
This precedent may apply to the people stuck in Japanese hot zones.