Archive for April, 2012

Effect of Nutrient Potassium on the Uptake of Cæsium-137 and Potassium and on Discrimination Factor

April 27, 2012

Letters to Nature
Nature 193, 1302 – 1303 (31 March 1962); doi:10.1038/1931302a0


Biology Laboratory, Hanford Laboratories, General Electric Company, Richland, Washington.

PREDICTIONS of the potential hazards from fall-out radioisotopes in man’s food chain have often been based on ion-pair relationships1,2. For example, because of close chemical similarities between strontium and calcium, the transfer of strontium-90 through biological materials has been correlated with calcium. The ratio of strontium-90/calcium of the tissue to the same ratio in the substrate, that is, strontium-90/calcium(tissue)/strontium-90/calcium(substrate), has been termed by Comar the observed ratio3. More recently cæsium-137 hazards have been considered in terms of cæsium-137/potassium ratios. Certain applications of these ratios have been criticized by Kornberg4, and the conditions necessary for their valid application in hazard assessment discussed. This report presents results which demonstrate the absence of any consistent relationship between the accumulation of cæsium and potassium in bean plants, and further demonstrates the limited applicability of cæsium-137/potassium ratios in hazard predictions.

Anderson, E. C. , Science, 128, 882 (1958). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
Fowler, E. B. , and Christensen, C. W. , J. Agric. Food Chem., 7, 847 (1959). | Article | ISI |
Comar, C. L. , Wasserman, R. H. , and Nold, M. M. , Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 92, 859 (1956). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
Kornberg, H. A. , Health Phys., 6, 46 (1961). | PubMed | ChemPort |
Cline, J. F. , and Hungate, F. P. , Plant Physiol., 35, 826 (1960). | ISI | ChemPort |
Middleton, L. J. , Hanley, R. , and Overstreet, R. , Plant Physiol., 35, 913 (1960). | ISI | ChemPort |
Wasserman, R. H. , and Comar, C. L. , Rad. Res., 15, 70 (1961). | ISI | ChemPort |
Duncan, D. B. , Biometrics, 11, 1 (1955). | ISI |

NONE OF THIS IS NEW. It’s the same old story.

We keep doing the same thing again and again and each contaminaiton event is presented as “new”. Back in 1965….

April 27, 2012

Movement of Fallout Radionuclides Through the Biosphere and Man
Annual Review of Nuclear Science
Vol. 15: 175-206 (Volume publication date December 1965)
DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ns.15.120165.001135
C L Comar

Full text download available at

US Senator Ron Wyden’s letter to the Ambassador of Japan re hazards of Fukushima

April 27, 2012

Fuk Fukushima’s Reactor 4 Spent fuel pool, hanging by a thread, amid ground movement and continuing risk of major quake. Not standing on solid rock, living on borrowed time.



At last someone in elected responsibility is taking this matter seriously, getting off their butt and attempting to do something positive.

Blossoms in Fukushima tainted by poison power.

How much tonnage of radiochemical is the Senator taking of ? Some months ago Scientific American studied this question.

The Scientific American states in part:

How Much Spent Nuclear Fuel Does the Fukushima Daiichi Facility Hold?

As Japan attempts to cool overheating nuclear fuel with seawater, experts worry that the damaged spent-fuel pools pose the greatest threat

By Katherine Harmon | March 17, 2011 | 32

…..”In an early attempt to refill the vital pools with water Thursday, the Japan Self Defense Forces (JSDF) dispatched a cargo helicopter—specially outfitted with lead plates to help shield crewmembers from direct radiation—to drop seawater on the plant’s reactor No. 3. The unit houses MOX (mixed oxide) fuel, which can melt at lower temperatures and could release some of its plutonium, which has a half-life of 24,000 years.”

“The spent fuel pools are of significant concern, Marvin Resnikoff, a radioactive waste management consultant, said in a Wednesday press briefing organized by the nonprofit organization Physicians for Social Responsibility. Resnikoff noted that the pools at each reactor are thought to have contained the following amounts of spent fuel, according to The Mainichi Daily News:

• Reactor No. 1: 50 tons of nuclear fuel
• Reactor No. 2: 81 tons
• Reactor No. 3: 88 tons
• Reactor No. 4: 135 tons
• Reactor No. 5: 142 tons
• Reactor No. 6: 151 tons
• Also, a separate ground-level fuel pool contains 1,097 tons of fuel; and some 70 tons of nuclear materials are kept on the grounds in dry storage.

The reactor cores themselves contain less than 100 tons of fuel, Resnikoff noted. “
end quote.

I thank Senator Wyden for taking action by going and seeing for himself, and for expressing concern and offering help to the national authorities of Japan.

Since 3/11, such realism in the realm of politics and national institutions has been lacking as nuclear interests attempted to manacle the news, the reality and the truth.

Hopefully, the Senator’s actions will help turn the corner from denial to realism in the official views portrayed in the media and with the psyche of government.

If the delusion is not defeated, the may be a time prior to the 30-50 year frame given for the dismantling of the nuclear reactor reserve at Fukushima will suffer further major damage from the forces of nature for which the nuclear industry never appreciated or took into account.

Given the amount of spent fuel at the site, and given that much of it is sitting high in the air, hanging from the damaged structures, the potential for further major radio-chemical release into the air, ground and water, the matter is real and urgent.

Forget the Sievert unit. Think hundreds of tons of material which, mass for mass, is thousands of times more radioactive than radium.

Anyone who who remembers the Radium Girls will not want to be a Fukushima person. No matter in the world we live.

We are all Down winders.

Evacuate Fukushima. Properly.

I don’t that all the atomic bombs ever released in the air produced anywhere near the fission product currently hanging in mid air in the Fukushima spent fuel pools amid support structures which are ruined, compromised, and sitting on land which has changed in nature since the March 2011 quakes.

Perhaps the reactors never sat on solid rock. Had the AEC and GE listened to objectors in the 1960s and 1970s, had the US imposed upon what was, in the 1950s, its nuclear colony, Japan, the separation of reactor operation from reactor safety regulation, the nuclear aspect of the 311 disaster may not have occurred.

For reality may have been appreciated within the minds of regulators. Had that occurred, the reactors would have been shut down decades ago.

And the fifty year task of dismantling the reactor facility at Fukushima would not be the huge, dangerous, lengthy and expensive process that it will be now.

What is the chance of another quake causing further damage and radio chemical dispersal within that half century time frame? Indeed the work may take longer.

In the technical language of the nuclear industry, Fukushima is the largest “unsealed source” the industr, military and civilian, has ever created.

I pray that the disperal of that “unsealed source” will soon totally cease and that no further disperal of radio chemical from the nuclear plants in Fukushima occur over the projected 50 deconstruction and decontamination effort the nation of Japan and the world faces.

Toshiba Corp has stated that the nuclear industry could still run at a profit even if a Fukushima event happened once every thirty years. I remind Toshiba that 1. There would be no nuclear profits but for constant taxpayer largesse to the industry 2. The Fukushima Event won’t be over until 2062. And that’s the optimistic view.

As to what will happen to the people forced to live too close to the danger zone, as it will exist until 2062, I would not hazard a guess. It is a matter of nuclear industry vs nature. And the people of a nation, and people of other affected nations, are, as usual, hostage to nuclear arrogance.

I note that the lie called hormesis, the false idea that radiation is “like a vitamin” (Sykes, DOE contractor, Australia), first trotted out in attempt to thwart the legal battle of dying radium dial painters in the 1920s and 1930s, is being trotted out again, with much persistence, by the supporters of those who brought the nuclear disaster to the world.

Brett Stokes’ Story. From the “Lizard’s Revenge” Event.

April 25, 2012

Quote ” Why I am going to be at Lizards Revenge
– Impacts of Olympic Dam, Roxby Downs and Fukushima

Transcript of Interview – Brett Stokes – April 2012 –

Roxby Downs is a town in the middle of nowhere that’s only been there for 30 years now.

And it’s a place that exists for only one reason, because of a mine where they mine a bunch of stuff including a lot of uranium that gets used to make yellow cake that gets used to make fuel rods that gets used to make electricity and creates a lot of pollution which comes back to us.

Especially since Fukushima in March 2011 when there was
a lot of problems following the tsunami and the earthquake in Japan.

We now have an atmosphere all over the world, not just in the northern hemisphere,
which is containing a lot more nasty radioactive particles than it used to.

And that is going to result and has resulted in a lot of health problems
and these facts are not being acknowledged by our mass media or our governments.

And we as individual people have to unite to save the futures of our children.

So for me Roxby Downs may be a town in the middle of nowhere that’s only been there for 30 years, but it’s a place where there is something really significant happening that’s making a bad problem even worse – and that is the expansion of the mine there, the creation of a huge hole in the ground and of mountains of dust that are going to poison any people who survive what is going on currently,

It’s not a good bargain for Australia,
it’s not a good bargain for South Australians,
to be selling our health.

Places in the world where uranium has been mined
are devastated by it.

It looks like it is going to make money, it creates poverty,
it’s a horrible business with lots of nasty health impacts.


In South Australia, we suffered the impacts of the British bomb tests back in the 1950s.

We had more attacks on our soil than the Japanese people had – they only had two atom bombs dropped on their people.

We had fallout from lots of explosions of British atomic bombs in Australia
and that poisoned the people of my generation,
the young kids who were born in the 1950s in Australia.

And a lot of them have died of cancer in their 40s and 50s and quite a few of them had children who had leukemia and died young.

And no one seems to get the picture.

We are being poisoned.
Our children are affected more than we as adults are.

The effects on adults take many years to hit home
and cause nasty diseases not just cancer
but all the heart attack people you know.

Cesium turns out to be
a nasty piece of the puzzle
which is a radioactive thing that’s produced by reactors that make electricity
out of uranium.

And this cesium goes to the muscles
and one of the most important muscles in the body is the heart.

And a lot of the other nasties like the strontiums and the plutoniums
go for the bones.
And the bones are where the blood’s made
and the blood stuff is leukemia.

And a lot of other nasty things that cause problems.

The rads don’t just cause heart attacks and cancer,
the rads cause chronic fatigue syndrome,
they cause diabetes,
they cause a lot of problems with miscarriages and infant mortality, babies dying.

And the effects on children are a lot worse.

There’s alarming statistics about what happened in Russia,
in Byelorussia especially, after Chernobyl.
Those statistics are denied by our mass media and our governments
but they are there to be found.

And there is a very sad story they tell
that 95% of Byelorussian children have chronic health problems
and when you say that you think
“gee that’s even worse than our aborigines in Australia
our indigenous people”.

Our indigenous people in Australia have had massive impacts
from the bomb tests here in Australia.

There are individuals whose names are legendary
and whose stories are amazing in terms of the
neglect and the poor treatment they have had.

As well as the indigenous people of Australia, the so called atomic veterans, both British servicemen and Australian servicemen who were part of the bomb tests at Maralinga
experienced a whole range of negative health impacts which were denied by governments and by law courts and it continues to this day.

50 years later these people, only a few of them are left alive, and the
government of Britain and the government of Australia have spent a
lot of money avoiding paying them any compensation for what was done to them in the name of nuclear power at that stage which had a mainly military face.

There’s little difference between the
nuclear power business for making electricity
and the
nuclear power business for making war.

They’ve got intimate connections.
They work together.

The electricity business came out of the war business.

Nuclear medicine as well is a dodgy issue all together, but it’s one where nowadays we have a lot of people who call themselves doctors, and work with Xray machines, and
they are causing a lot of problems because they administer ionising radiations X rays to people.

My mother had an Xray of her unborn first child done to send to my father in 1945 because he was in New Guinea serving in the air force and
she was in Australia
also serving in the air force when she became pregnant
and she shared the news by sending him an Xray.

That would not happen nowadays because
we are well aware that it has very bad effects on children and unborn children,
pregnant women don’t get Xrays.

But the same energy, the same medical profession that cavalierly took Xrays of
pregnant (women and) children then …
And my elder brother is
dead now, he died of cancer,
he had a lot of problems with vision in his lfe … so perhaps the Xray when he was in the womb had harmed him, I don’t know, nobody knows for sure.

But the same people, the same energy, who say “we have this thing, we have these Xray machines, we have these radioactive chemicals, we can do things to people with them” …

That same energy
is still around and it is still as misguided and stupid as it was then
and perhaps it’s what’s behind a lot of the neglect that’s been going on
about the pollution that’s happening from the mining and from the nuclear power plants and from the weapons tests.

There’s a lot of neglect because people are pretending that radiation isn’t harmful
people are pretending that radiation might even be good for people …

And it’s a load of rubbish,
and the people who are saying this are just puppets who are collecting huge bribes to tell lies.

And I don’t like that.

In Adelaide we have some one called Pamela Sykes who has received
millions of dollars of american money from a mob called the DOE in America, the Department of Energy, which is largely the old Atomic Energy Commission.

And the money is being paid to Sykes so that she can do research which “proves” that a little bit of radiation is good for you.

She says “Radiation is like vitamins”.

She is very wrong in that, and the science is clear that she is very wrong.

The United States pays her money,
and then the Department of Energy in the United States can say “we don’t need to fix up this place
that has radiation poisoning and radiation pollution, because it’s actually good for you to have that little bit extra radiation, and we don’t need to clean it up,
and we have just saved 10 billion dollars, isn’t that fantastic,
we don’t need to clean up the mess we’ve made, it’s not a mess,
we’ve re-defined the rules.”

But their changing the rules in that way is a fraud, it’s a criminal fraud,
and it’s an international conspiracy in my view
to bend the rules.

They keep raising what they call the “safe limits”

– there are no safe limits,
it’s just an absolute lie to call them “safe limits”.

So, the picture to me is clear.

We have a struggle for the survival of our civilisation and of our species, and of our children,

And the enemy is called
the Nuke Gang
N U K E … G A N G
and I started calling them that and a few other people are starting to call them that.

It’s the only way to describe a gang of murderous people.

They’re a gang.

And they’ve got a lot of money.

The Manhattan Project which produced the bombs in world war two was the most expensive thing ever done by people ever.

It was a huge amount of money was thrown at this business of making
a few kilograms of stuff produce so much energy that it could kill tens of thousands of people immediately and hundreds of millions, thousands, of people in the longterm from the fallout.

That amount of money, that huge bank account is
still funding a massive propaganda effort to convince people that everything is okay, and the hormesis lie that radiation is actually good for you in small doses.

The reality I repeat is that radiation is not good for you, it is a lot worse than we know,
and we are involved in a huge nasty experiment where we are finding out what rads do to people.

And the people of Japan, and the people of Northern Japan in particular and
the children of Northern Japan in particular are the innocent victims of this horrible experiment.

And we will see more and more, over the next few months and few years, the effects of this horrible
poisoning of our atmosphere and of our food chains by this gang of people I call the Nuke Gang.

“So have you been to Roxby Downs before, actually?”

No, I have never been to Roxby Downs before.

I worked in Whyalla for a few years at the time when Roxby Downs was starting up …
it was only a few years after Roxby Downs had started up.

I knew a few people who went from Whyalla to Roxby Downs.

There was an energy of pioneering spirit there.

There was an energy of people doing something new.

And at the time, I didn’t really care a lot about the nuclear issue,
I was doing other things.

Now I care a lot more and I am heading to Roxby Downs in July
for the Lizard’s Revenge Festival and Rally.

And I am hoping a lot of other people from all around the world will be there.

Perhaps we can send a message to a lot of people
and perhaps we can get some change in the directions we are heading as a civilisation.

I see Roxby Downs and the expansion of the Olympic Dam mine
as being very much a symbol of, and a battlefront, a place where we can make a statement
and say
“this has got to stop – it just makes no sense”.

But the people who live in Roxby Downs,
they’re making a good living and they think they’re doing the right thing by their children by making a good living.

And the shareholders of the company that runs the mine,
BHP Billiton, I think they are all good people, I think they are mostly good people,

they have invested in a safe investment so that their assets will be there for their kids,

and they’ve invested in a blue chip company which they think is doing the right thing by everyone,

but the sad reality is that this respected big company
is a nasty animal and it is only interested in making money
and it doesn’t care about our children now
and it doesn’t care about the children in the future.

We have, at the core of the Nuke Gang, we have these creatures, these artificially intelligent bank accounts, these companies, these corporations which have huge bank accounts and can do things to manipulate governments.

And in South Australia the people who own Roxby Downs have done a brilliant job of manipulating the local government.

And they have been given full legal authorisation to proceed with this massive expansion.

It is a sad sad reality that there is a huge commitment in our local society here to continue mining uranium, to expand the mining of uranium.

“What factors will this expansion entail for the immediate future of the safety of the city?”

There a few things.

We live on a small planet so anything that happens anywhere to do with nuclear proliferation or the expansion of the nuclear power industry affects all of us.

It increases the level of nuclear poison nuclear pollution we all have to deal with when we breathe and when we eat and when we drink water.

So it affects us globally,
it affects everyone on the planet.

The closer you are to Fukushima, the worse it is maybe,
but we all get affected and all of our children are getting a dose.

“And you have seen that in geiger counter readings from across the globe?”

Indeed, it’s one of the things that has happened as a result of Fukushima is
a lot of people have educated themselves and have learned not to trust the mass media or our governments.

And there’s a lot of crowd sourced observations going on on many levels
and FaceBook provides a networking mechanism.

I have got to meet a lot of people through FaceBook
who own geiger counters and live in various places around the world
and we have all exchanged knowledge that we have, and ignorance as well,
and we have
learned a lot about how radiation is measured and it is a very complex subject
and we have
learned a lot about how radiation affects people and that’s another very complex subject
and we have also learned a lot about how
the deceptive processes and the
suppression of information work.

For example, after Fukushima,
Canadian and American authorities
scaled back the measurement of radiation –
it was a ridiculous thing that they did.

The only excuse possibly is that they did not want to cause alarm
but it’s terrifying the
suppression of information and the lack of warning
and it’s
typical of the irresponsible behaviour of the nuclear power industry
and the Nuke Gang in general.

Roxby Downs, also the
expansion of the mine is going to have
a lot of local impacts and they are
going to affect the people of south eastern Australia
the people of Melbourne, the people of Adelaide,
the people of Sydney,
three very big cities
are going to have to deal with dust storms which contain high levels of radioactive
uranium in particular
these dust storms will come from the massive mountains of dirt that will be built
when they dig the huge hole that is the expanded mine
that they plan to do
at Roxby Downs.

So that’s part of the local impact.

Even more locally they are continuing the pillaging of the artesian water, this ancient resource of pure water
is being just used to hose down dust
it’s just obscene to me.

In order to get even more water there are plans to build
desalination plants that will put at risk a lot of local environmental stuff including
the wonderful Giant Cuttlefish breeding grounds in the northern Spencer Gulf.

The effects of radon gas on people who work in uranium mining and people who live near uranium mining
is a huge thing which has led to the devastation of communities all around the world who have
done uranium mining.

And the documentation is there now.
Again, internet YouTube and FaceBook.

There are activist groups from India who are opposing nuclear power plants there and document the
devastating effects of uranium mining on certain areas in India.

There are similarly people who are
activists in north America and document
the effects of uranium mining on mainly indigenous, minority indigenous people
in Canada and in Arizona in particular in the USA.

There’s also the longer term things
to do with nuclear proliferation
the risk of idiots getting hold of the
knowledge and the ingredients to make atomic weapons.

That’s certainly an ongoing issue.

Nuclear proliferation with governments having atomic bombs is bad enough
but there is
plenty of valid fear that terrorists will acquire nuclear materials.

It’s like they don’t need to, we are already being poisoned by our own governments.

Like, who needs terrorists when you have governments like we have.

It’s a shocking situation.

Again, it’s a global situation,
it’s one that transcends the borders.

Just as these corporations and the nuke gang live in a world where
they duck and weave between a law here and a law there.
They can do something legally there and they can do something else legally here.

We the people of planet earth need to
respond in a similar trans national way to defend ourselves against this horrible threat, this lethal threat.

How many people have been killed by Fukushima?

And Fukushima is the result of what seems to be a peace-able peaceful industry
mining uranium in Australia
making money to feed the kids and to have a good life.

So the people of Roxby Downs don’t feel guilty, they don’t feel they did Fukushinma.

The people of South Australia including the politicians who voted for the expansion of the Olympic Dam mine,

these people don’t feel responsible for the poisoning of Japan
these people don’t feel responsible for the poisoning of the northern hemisphere
and these people don’t feel responsible for the poisoning of their own children

and yet they are responsible,
they are part of the process which is inevitably leading to the poisoning of our children.

And it’s a sad thing and perhaps by gathering together in July 2012
outside the gates of Olympic Dam mine,

we can send a message to so many people
the shareholders
the workers
the politicians.

“Do you feel as though the spreading the message of the true reality of what happened
will help to awaken people and
discourage mining of uranium
or at least
irresponsible mining of uranium in the future?”

Eventually yes.

There was a time when Australians did not allow uranium mining for the very good reasons that it is an immoral thing to do.
And for some reason those standards were relaxed

and we are now contemplating the expansion of uranium mining in Australia.

It’s not the will of the people.

Somehow it has happened.

It gets back, in my view, to the massive corruption involved within our academic sphere, the puppet professors like Barry Brook, the psycho Sykes and her like who tell the lies
that radiation isn’t harmful in small doses
when we know the science is clear that radiation is harmful in any dose especially to children.

So we have these huge issues to deal with, with the corruption, and the misinformation and the lies, and the commitment that people have financially to this horrible industry.

Yet in the long term
it brings poverty, it brings misery,
it brings dead children and sick people
and poisoned land.

And Kevin Buzzacott is trying in a
last ditch legal attempt
to do something about this expansion

Hopefully that will help but I don’t feel very confident,
but at least someone is doing something.

And Kevin is the person who the first time I heard him talk
he mentioned
“it hits the children hard”.

He said that several times.

It still brings lump in my throat

He would have seen so much damage and he would be so aware of it
and we are all aware of it
but we pretended it wasn’t happening.

There are so many kids with Downs Syndrome, so many adults with cancer, there are so many kids with leukemia.

And we pretend it’s normal.

How long will it go on?

Early on after Fukushima,
I wrote this story
and I said
in forty years
people will still be saying
it’s okay because at least some of the children are surviving.

I imagined a time when nine out of ten pregnancies ended in sadness
and only one in ten pregnancies ended in a live happy birth
and even then the child maybe needed a lot of medical care to survive
but I imagined that people would

still pretend still maintain denial.

They would have hope because there were some children alive.

But I imagine a time
when none of the children survive.

And then all we’ve got is children being made in machines.

We have Breve New World.

If we have any children at all,
they come from machines,
they come from artificial wombs,
they are clones

do we want that world?
I don’t think we do even if it is feasible.

But in between now and then
when are people going to wake up?

I don’t know.

All we can do is try.

The people who have woken up cannot return to unawareness.

Some of them are aware that they are dying quickly.

Some of the people I am talking to through FaceBook
in North America and in Japan
are aware that they are dying quickly.

And they know what caused it.

My own family experience is a sad one.

My grandsons were twins, they were growing, they were healthy.

They were six months in to the pregnancy in their mother’s womb in Sweden,
and it’s now clear that massive clouds of radioactive poisons came
from Fukushima to northern Europe and Scandinavia in particular

from March 22nd 2011 onwards.

And about two weeks after that suddenly my twin grandsons were dead.

And it was a very sad business.

The autopsy said there was no apparent reason for their deaths
but I believe that it was caused by Fukushima poisons.

And the Nuke Gang people say nobody’s died from Fukushima,
but I say I know of two, two unborn.

Paul Langley

May I use this as a quote in a blog post?

Brett Burnard Stokes

Yep, sure and I have .MP3 and text files available, … the youtube video is in process for a few days more …

The Battle for control of the US NRC continues.

April 25, 2012

Ryan Grim

“WASHINGTON — A GOP nominee to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission “lied to Congress” and “disqualified herself” from a second term, a spokesman for Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) said Wednesday. Reid’s blunt opposition to the Republican pick is part of a longer battle over the direction of the agency that regulates nuclear power — an aggressive step that has infuriated his counterpart, Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.).

McConnell accuses Democrats of retaliating against NRC Commissioner Kristine Svinicki for taking part in an organized effort to oust NRC Chairman Gregory Jaczko last year.

“Commissioner Svinicki stood up to this guy, who somehow managed to avoid being fired in the wake of all these revelations, in an effort to preserve the integrity of the agency, and to protect the career staffers who were the subject of the chairman’s tactics,” said McConnell on the Senate floor Wednesday. “And now, for some mysterious reason, she’s being held up for re-nomination.”

On Wednesday afternoon, Reid spokesman Adam Jentleson sought to clear up the mystery. Svinicki, 45, is being shot down, he said, because she lied. “Senator Reid opposes Commissioner Svinicki’s re-nomination because she lied to Congress about her past work on Yucca Mountain,” Jentleson said. “Furthermore, Commissioner Svinicki has an abysmal record on nuclear safety, demonstrating that she puts the interests of the nuclear industry ahead of the safety of American citizens. Senator Reid has consistently supported qualified Republicans for the commission and is open to supporting others, but Commissioner Svinicki has disqualified herself and does not deserve to be re-nominated.”

Nominations to agencies such as the NRC are typically made in pairs, with Democrats selecting one and Republicans the other. The party that controls the White House then picks the chair. Svinicki is the GOP nominee, and Republicans are slamming Reid for usurping their prerogative. Jentleson, though, noted that there is precedent for Reid’s move to block the pick. A McConnell spokesman said that the White House had not expressed reservations about Svinicki.

White House spokesman Clark Stevens didn’t address Svinicki directly on Wednesday evening. “The administration agrees that we need a strong NRC, and that will continue to be a priority,” Stevens said. “Whenever a nomination is made, it should be considered expeditiously to make sure there is no break in June.”

But by Thursday morning, the White House was defying Reid. Reuters reported that Obama will renominate Svinicki despite the majority leader’s objection, setting up an intra-party battle over Reid’s signature issue, Yucca Mountain. A White House aide confirmed that Obama will indeed renominate Svinicki.”

end quote.

The US DOE (nuclear energy promotion agency) would love a Nuclear Regulatory Commission which conformed to its agenda rather than the Charter to ensure safety in those US reactors which do exist.

Then the US and the world would see in fact a return to the bad old days when agency – the AEC – had a charter which included the promotion of nuclear energy, the conduct of nuclear weapons tests and public safety. That it didn’t work is recorded in history, which is why the functions were spilt into nuclear promotion – DOE and nuclear regulation – NRC in the 1970s.

The current crisis in Japan can be sheeted home precisely to the fact that although the US thrust 55 nuclear reactors down throats of the Japanese people in a campaign of propaganda (reactor radiation = good, bomb radiation = bad) using all the resources of the US within Japan at that time, in the 1970s when the failures and dangers of the AEC were addressed within the US, the same was not applied to its nulcear colony, Japan.

What is Japan to do with its 75 tons of reactor produced plutonium and 75 kilograms of it which is missing? (about 6 Nagasaki bombs worth is missing).

See also

The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by Congress to foster and control the peace time development of atomic science and technology. President Harry S. Truman signed the McMahon/Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946, transferring the control of atomic energy from military to civilian hands, effective from January 1, 1947.

An increasing number of critics during the 1960s charged that the AEC’s regulations were insufficiently rigorous in several important areas, including radiation protection standards, nuclear reactor safety, plant siting, and environmental protection. By 1974, the AEC’s regulatory programs had come under such strong attack that Congress decided to abolish the agency. The agency was abolished by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, which assigned its functions to two new agencies: the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The AEC’s far-reaching powers and control over subject matter which had far-reaching social, public health, and military implications made it an extremely controversial organization. One of the drafters of the McMahon Act, James R. Newman, famously concluded that the bill made “the field of atomic energy [an] island of socialism in the midst of a free-enterprise economy”.

Stephanie Cooke has written that:

“the AEC had become an oligarchy controlling all facets of the military and civilian sides of nuclear energy, promoting them and at the same time attempting to regulate them, and it had fallen down on the regulatory side … a growing legion of critics saw too many inbuilt conflicts of interest”

end quote. There is nothing the nuclear industry (including the bomb and weapon production side of it – the main point of the whole edifice) would love better than a NRC which was subordinate to the DOE.

As for Japan – the idea of so many reactors producing so much plutonium renders that nation an alternate bomb fuel platform for the USA – the idea in the first instance in the 1950s. The electricity production ability of reactors – simply because the excess heat of plutonium production fission can boil water to turn turbines – in no way justifies the vast amounts of money the industry requires to survive. All reactors are dual use and the money they have taken world wide since 1945 has delayed energy technology. It has not fostered scientific advance at all , it has held it back.

The Industry technology still has at its core the 1934 chain reaction patent of Leo Szilard, “An Improved Method for the Transformation of the Chemical Elements”. Applied as “The method for turning uranium in to plutonium and over 200 other radioactive substances, most hundreds, some thousands, of times more radioactive than the uranium from which they are produced. And which are now spread over Japan, the Northern Hemisphere and the world.

There are over 1,200 spent fuel rods at Fukushima alone. When Iran produced its first, singular reactor fuel rod, the US Navy steamed up the Gulf of Hormuz. At the same time, the Japanese government was ignoring US advice to widen its Fukushima evacuation zone, and the USS Ronald Reagan was being decontaminated after the Fukushima emission cloud passed over it and over its aircraft in the air.

Meanwhile, the advocates of nuclear industry continue to claim that radiation is good for you and that the main danger of Fukushima is the media reporting of the facts. Weird science bought and paid for by US DOE which would have us believe that lab based ultra low dose low let external x ray exposure experiments on mice prove Fukushima is safe. (Sykes, Scott et al, DOE contractors). However, when quesitoned about the lack of hormesis evidence in Australian nuclear veterans (who suffer a much greater chance of cancer than the rest of the population) Sykes replied that she didn’t think the bomb tests were low dose.

Well neither are the internal emitters released since March 2011 by the Japanese reactors. On the one hand Sykes, using funds paid in the first instance to engage in research to determine health impacts suffered by US Downwinders from the nuclear test era, says her radiation type used in experiments is very low dose low LET. And in her public statements applies her findings to fission and fuel products which emit not low dose low LET x external, but which present has high LET highly radioactive flecks within living tissue.

Pam Sykes deliberately confuses hormesis and adaptive response in her public statements while defining her research in highly specific terms. One cannot apply conclusions from one type of exposure to another.

This is the very same argument which set Gofman and Pauling and others against the AEC and its advocates, such as Edward Teller, in the first instance. On the one hand, Teller and other pro nuke people were free to speak, Pauling was banned from international outside the USA. Gofman was threatened by the Chair of the Congressional hearings related to radiation, fallout and reactors.

In Adelaide recently we saw the exact same dynamic, when a public lecture regarding Fukushima held by UniSA was distrupted by a paid DOE contractor (Bhut) who questioned the speakers right to speak.

Last week, Pam Sykes held a public lecture. An event described as public. And yet, Flinders University informed Dr Jim Green that the lecture was not aimed at the public, but at academics and students. And that a contrary view would not be discussed.

The fact is, an attendee has told me that the audience at the Sykes lecture was notable by the absence of academics in the audience.

Back to the Future.

Sykes would never inject her mice with Plutonium. The DOE knows the results. There is no safe dose. Yet, on the basis of low dose low LET external X, Sykes and co claim mass meltdown of reactor parks in Japan are perfectly safe and the radiaiton emitted in the form of fuel particles and fission products are “like vitamins”

Sykes will be putting her mice underground next I am told. She expects them to do worse when shielded from the cosmic gamma background.

Well, Pam, I refer you to the ARPANSA document which describes the radon hazard in caves.

Radon in Caves: Main Text
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – Quick View
by SB Solomon – Cited by 1 – Related articles
to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site … to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level.

I would challenge Sykes to take an alpha detector with her on her junket to Italy.

Andrew Kishner’s Seafood Advisory at

April 25, 2012

Hello Friend of,

Please take note of our new advisory: Advisory for Banning Pacific Seafood in Diet
April 11, 2012

Since the summer of 2011, U.S. scientists have observed several dozen living and dead Pacific Ocean marine mammals with a strangely similar condition of skin sores and hair loss. These animals may be suffering from ‘beta burns,’ which are caused by significant external exposure to ‘beta emitters’ such as radiostrontiums, which were released in copious quantities to the Pacific Ocean at Fukushima Daiichi in 2011. Note that in April 2011 three TEPCO workers sustained radiation injuries to their feet while in standing water. TEPCO ignored the obvious culprit of these ‘beta burns,’ strontium-89 and/or strontium-90, both ‘beta-emitters’ commonly found in nuclear spent fuel. These beta-emitters, upon contact with a victim, can cause external injuries including hair loss, sores and lesions. These and other radioactive isotopes from Fukushima now found throughout the Pacific Ocean are also available for internal contamination of sea plants and animals. Consider that Alaska-caught fish and marine mammals in the late 1950s tested by scientists were found to be an order of magnitude more radioactive in strontium-90 content than most land-grown foods. These animals were swimming and feeding in radioactive water that originated from sources thousands of miles away. Our concern is that fish harvested this season along North America’s Pacific coastline may be contaminated with unsafe levels of radioactivity.

There is no safe level of radioactivity and a small number of deaths will occur in any population with every increase in that population’s total radioactive exposure. This is admitted by the FDA, which asserts that a 1 Rem dose increases a person’s cancer mortality risk by 0.045 percent. The late radiobiologist John Gofman, however, believed the fatal cancer risk from that exposure is 6 times greater. The FDA’s Derived Intervention Level (DIL) for iodine-131, for example, reflects this risk factor. It actually predicts two fatal cancers in a population of 10,000 persons who consume foods at that threshold ‘DIL’ level. Using Gofman’s risk factor, twelve ‘extra’ cancer fatalities would result in that population. The best public health option is to ensure no radioactive foods enter the marketplace. But since there is absolutely no adequate monitoring in place for Pacific Ocean seafood, all seafood from the Pacific should be avoided.

Source: ‘Radiological Health Data,’ January 1961, U.S. Public Health Service, p. 21 (‘Strontium-90 Concentrations in Food Samples Taken in State of Alaska’)

See chapters 3 (‘Global fallout’) and 12 (‘Fukushima Daiichi’) of our book <> for greater context. For more about Fukushima’s impact on Alaska’s environment, visit appendix 12 .

Andrew Kishner

Special coverage of Fukushima radiation reaching the U.S.-Canada West Coast: Seafood advisory

Paul’s note: Andrew’s warning would seem to be confirmed by the scientific paper ““Canopy-Forming Kelps as California’s Coastal Dosimeter: 131I from Damaged Japanese Reactor Measured in Macrocystis pyrifera”
March 31, 2012

While this paper discusses only the Iodine 131 absorbed by US coastal kelp released into the atmosphere by the ongoing Fukushima reactor disaster, the contaminated ocean currents have now reached US/Canadian shores.

Steven L. Manley*† and Christopher G. Lowe†
† Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Long Beach, California 90840 United States
Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/es203598r
Publication Date (Web): March 6, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society”

Nuclear Ethics and medical experimentation – from Andrew Kishner.

April 23, 2012

Email from Andrew Kishner.

Hi Paul,

Good to see you’re blogging again.

The thing about U.S. human rad experiments that freaks me out to this day is that the USG didn’t declassify the worst ones. They only told us the palatable ones. I found one of the still-classified ones; the use of imprisoned and caged humans very close to ground-zero during the NTS Shot Hood test in 1957. Have you heard about that one? It’s all at this link <<>>

I read your posts, and I don’t think the USG is just a footstool for the nuke industry. It also the other way around. Nuclear weapons have always been the prize – the nuke industry is just doing it for the money as a ‘PR hitman’, doing the dirty work of getting us comfortable with nuclear radiation. If we fear radiation, the fall of the reactor industry will shed little tears in the power structures. It’s losing nuclear weapons that has always been what they’ve been fearing. Hormesis, radiation ‘action levels’ and permissible limits, coverups, lies, etc.. are just par for the course. The DOE is front and central. It’s NNSA holds the nuclear warheads and the rest of the budget goes to PR.


My reply:

Hi Andrew, I had not heard of the US caged human events. I have read of reports of the same thing happening here at the Maralinga nuke site with Aboriginal people and people flown out from Britain who were suffering various congenital diseases such as mental retardation. They were allegedly placed in bunkers very close to ground zero. A British pilot who flew the British victims out to Maralinga spilled the beans some years ago. A nuclear veteran told me that Aboriginal people were kept behind wire mesh fencing for a day, the day prior to a bomb test. Immediately after the bomb test, the compound in which the Aboriginal people had been held was empty. A local legal centre worker active in Aboriginal Legal Rights informed me some years ago that bodies of Aboriginal people were flown from the nuclear test area to the USA.

These stories are unconfirmed officially. But from time to time, they surface in the media. The existence of close in bunkers is confirmed. The official line is that they housed only instruments. Not human test subjects. However, people involved dispute this. People such as the British pilot, and some nuclear veterans who wondered why some Aborigines were being held when forced removal was in place, and what happened to the fenced in detained Aboriginal people. There before the bomb, gone after. At least a weird illogical way to manage forced evacuation. At most a call for answers as to what happened to these people.

The Rowland study of genetic damage to nuclear veterans flies in the face of Syke’s claim of radiaiton as a “vitamin”.

April 23, 2012

DNA damage to nuclear test vets prompts call for study of children
Download the full report (PDF)

video-14×44.gif Watch the ONE NEWS item: dialup 56k or broadband 128k
video-14×44.gif Watch the 3 NEWS item

Dr Al RowlandThe Government is considering whether to fund studies into the health of nuclear test veterans’ children, after a Massey study confirmed that the veterans had suffered genetic damage as a result of radiation.

The New Zealand Nuclear Test Veterans’ Association commissioned Dr Al Rowland of the Institute of Molecular BioSciences and his team to look at the cells of 50 veterans for damage. Dr Rowland says the findings are unequivocal: in a matched control group of men of the same age, his team found an expected frequency of 10 chromosome translocations per 1000 cells, but in the veterans’ group, the average number of translocations was considerably higher at 29 chromosome translocations per 1000 cells.

Workers who were close the Chernobyl nuclear accident or involved in the clean up after the accident had about 20 translocations.

The lawyer acting for the veterans is to travel to London, where a class action is being taken against the British Government on behalf of the British, Fijian and New Zealand Veterans.

Association chairman Roy Sefton says more than 400 of the 551 sailors who took part in Operation Grapple have died. He was 17 when he was sent to the operation, a series of detonations totalling nine-megatons.

“NZNTVA is now looking for financial support from Government, or elsewhere, to have a study done on a group of the veterans’ children to identify any genetic damage that may have resulted from their fathers’ exposure to service-related radiation.”

It was the incoming Labour Government of 1999 that granted the veterans $100,000 for the study, Mr Sefton says, with additional support of more than $100,000 from agencies including The Lion Foundation, the New Zealand and Auckland cancer societies, and the Royal Society which donated funding and laboratory equipment.

The seamen who took part in Operation Grapple were on the frigates HMNZS Pukaki and HMNZS Rotoiti, watching the tests from distances of between 52km and 278km.

The University team that produced the study included Mohammed Abdul Wahab and Elizabeth Nickless of the Institute of Molecular BioSciences, and Associate Professor John Podd of the University’s School of Psychology, as well as Claude Parmentier and Radhia M’Kacher of the Institut Gustave-Roussy in France.


Sykes et al and the DOE who fund her, claim that radiation protects this damage. But it is radiation damage. An the veterans were exposed to radiation doses in the alleged beneficial low dose range according to the British and Australian governments.

So what’s going on at Flinders University in the aid of the British government in its current campaign against the legal challenge of British nuclear veterans. They are not allowed to present the evidence. Yet, a similar photo of radiogenic chromosomal damage was published in 1957 by Peter Alexander in his book “Atomic Radiation and Life”.

The ACHRE Final Reports explains the “Dual Use” nature of research intended to benefit nuclear industry under the front of “medicine”.

April 23, 2012


Brief Extracts. See link for Full Text.

October 3, 1995
Old Executive Office Building

Let me begin with a simple thank you to everyone who participated in this extraordinary project and to everyone who supported them.

And to all those who represent the families who have been involved in these incidents, let me say to you, I hope you feel that your government has kept its commitment to the American people to tell the truth and to do the right thing. We discovered soon after I entered office that with the specter of an atomic war looming like Armageddon far nearer than it does today, the United States government actually did carry out on our citizens experiments involving radiation. That’s when I ordered the creation of this committee. Dr. Faden and the others did a superb job. They enlisted many of our nation’s most significant and important medical and scientific ethicists. They had to determine first whether experiments conducted or sponsored by our government between 1944 and 1974 met the ethical and scientific standards of that time and of our time. And then they had to see to it that our research today lives up to nothing less than our highest values and our most deeply-held beliefs.

From the beginning, it was obvious to me that this energetic committee was prepared to do its part. We declassified thousands of pages of documents. We gave committee members the keys to the government’s doors, file cabinets and safes. For the last year and a half, the only thing that stood between them and the truth were all the late nights and hard work they had to put in.

This report I received today is a monumental document in more ways than one. But it is a very, very important piece of America’s history, and it will shape America’s future in ways that will make us a more honorable, more successful and more ethical country.

What this committee learned I would like to review today with a little more detail than Dr. Faden said, because I think it must be engraved on our national memory. Thousands of government-sponsored experiments did take place at hospitals, universities, and military bases around our nation. The goal was to understand the effects of radiation exposure on the human body.

While most of the tests were ethical by any standards, some were unethical, not only by today’s standards, but by the standards of the time in which they were conducted. They failed both the test of our national values and the test of humanity.

In one experiment, scientists injected plutonium into 18 patients without their knowledge. In another, doctors exposed indigent cancer patients to excessive doses of radiation, a treatment from which it is virtually impossible that they could ever benefit.

The report also demonstrates that these and other experiments were carried out on precisely those citizens who count most on the government for its help the destitute and the gravely ill. But the dispossessed were not alone. Members of the military precisely those on whom we and our government count most they were also test subjects.

Informed consent means your doctor tells you the risk of the treatment you are about to undergo. (Editor: AND THAT THE PATIENT AGREES TO THE TREATMENT.) In too many cases, informed consent was withheld. Americans were kept in the dark about the effects of what was being done to them. The deception extended beyond the test subjects themselves to encompass their families and the American people as a whole, for these experiments were kept secret. And they were shrouded not for a compelling reason of national security, but for the simple fear of embarrassment, and that was wrong.

Those who led the government when these decisions were made are no longer here to take responsibility for what they did. They are not here to apologize to the survivors, the family members or the communities who’s lives were darkened by the shadow of the atom and these choices.

So today, on behalf of another generation of American leaders and another generation of American citizens, the United States of America offers a sincere apology to those of our citizens who were subjected to these experiments, to their families, and to their communities.

When the government does wrong, we have a moral responsibility to admit it. The duty we owe to one another to tell the truth and to protect our fellow citizens from excesses like these is one we can never walk away from. Our government failed in that duty, and it offers an apology to the survivors and their families and to all the American people who must who must be able to rely upon the Untied States to keep its word, to tell the truth, and to do the right thing.

We know there are moments when words alone are not enough. That’s why I am instructing my Cabinet to use and build on these recommendations, to devise promptly a system of relief, including compensation, that meets the standards of justice and conscience.

When called for, we will work with Congress to serve the best needs of those who were harmed. Make no mistake, as the committee report says, there are circumstances where compensation is appropriate as a matter of ethics and principle. I am committed to seeing to it that the United States of America lives up to its responsibility.

Our greatness is measured not only in how we so frequently do right, but also how we act when we know we’ve done the wrong thing; how we confront our mistakes, make our apologies, and take action.

That’s why this morning, I signed an executive order instructing every arm and agency of our government that conducts, supports, or regulates research involving human beings to review immediately their procedures, in light of the recommendations of this report, and the best knowledge and standards available today, and to report back to me by Christmas.

I have also created a Bioethics Advisory Commission to supervise the process, to watch over all such research, and to see to it that never again do we stray from the basic values of protecting our people and being straight with them.

The report I received today will not be left on a shelf to gather dust. Every one of its pages offers a lesson, and every lesson will be learned from these good people who put a year and a half of their lives into the effort to set America straight.

Medical and scientific progress depends upon learning about people’s responses to new medicines, to new cutting- edge treatments. Without this kind of research, our children would still be dying from polio and other killers. Without responsible radiation research, we wouldn’t be making the progress we are in the war on cancer. We have to continue to research, but there is a right way and a wrong way to do it. end quote.


Since 1999 the US Department of Energy has funded radiation research in many countries around the world, including Australia. In fact the awarding of a radiation research contract to the Flinders University of South Australia was one of the first to receive funding under the US DOE low dose research program.

US Presidential Executive Order 12891 of 1994 is available for download here:
February 16, 2012
The ACHRE Final Report on deliberate non medical exposures of the public to ionising radiation

Quick reference:

Although I have the complete volume of the Final Report, I will not bore the reader with vast tracts of text. Instead I will concentrate on salient quotes the reader can easily confirm by consulting the Department of Energy links which exist as a result of a US Presidential Executive Order which mandates that the Department of Energy and other involved agencies be open with the public.

quote: “In chapter 2 we turn from a consideration of government standards to an exploration of the norms and practices of physicians and medical scientists who conducted research with human subjects during this (Cold War) period. We include here an analysis of the significance of the Nuremberg Code, which arose out of the international war crimes trial of German physicians in 1947. Using the results of our Ethics Oral History Project, and other sources, we also examine how scientists of the time viewed their moral responsibilities to human subjects as well as how this translated into the manner in which they conducted their research. Of particular interest are the differences in professional norms and practices between research in which patients are used as subjects and research involving so-called healthy volunteers.

In chapter 3 we return to the question of government standards, focusing now on the 1960s and 1970s. In the first part of this chapter, we review the well-documented developments that influenced and led up to two landmark events in the history of government policy on research involving human subjects: the promulgation by DHEW of comprehensive regulations for oversight of human subjects research and passage by Congress of the National Research Act. In the latter part of the chapter we review developments and policies governing human research in agencies other than DHEW, a history that has received comparatively little scholarly attention. We also discuss scandals in human research conducted by the DOD and the CIA that came to light in the 1970s and that influenced subsequent agency policies.

With the historical context established in chapters 1 through 3, we turn in chapter 4 to the core of our charge. Here we put forward and defend three kinds of ethical standards for evaluating human radiation experiments conducted from 1944 to 1974. We embed these standards in a moral framework intended to clarify and facilitate the difficult task of making judgments about the past.” end quote.

Quote: “Chapter 7. Nontherapeutic Research on Children

The Committee then selected for particular consideration, in chapter 7, radioisotope research that used children as subjects. We determined to focus on children for several reasons. First, at low levels of radiation exposure, children are at greater risk of harm than adults. Second, children were the most appropriate group in which to pursue the Committee’s mandate with respect to notifica tion of former subjects for medical reasons. They are the group most likely to have been harmed by their participation in research, and they are more likely than other former subjects still to be alive. Third, when the Committee considered how best to study subject populations that were most likely to be exploited because of their relative dependency or powerlessness, children were the only subjects who could readily be identified in the meager documenta tion available. By contrast, characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, and social class were rarely noted in research reports of the day.”
Chapter 9. Prisoners: A Captive Research Population

In chapter 9 we examine experimentation on healthy subjects, specifically prisoners, for the purpose of learning the effects of external irradiation on the testes, such as might be experienced by astronauts in space. The prisoner experiments were studied because they received significant public attention and because a literally captive population was chosen to bear risks to which no other group of experimental subjects had been exposed or has been exposed since. This research took place during a period in which the once commonly accepted practice of nontherapeutic experimen tation on prisoners was increasingly subject to public criticism and moral outrage.
Chapter 10. Atomic Veterans: Human Experimentation in Connection with Bomb Tests

Chapter 10 also explores research involving healthy subjects: human experimentation conducted in connection with atomic bomb tests. More than 200,000 service personnel–now known as atomic veterans–participated at atomic bomb test sites, mostly for training and test-management purposes. A small number also were used as subjects of experimentation. The Committee heard from many atomic veterans and their family members who were concerned about both the long-term health effects of these exposures and the government’s conduct. In seeking to reconstruct the story of human experimentation in connection with bomb tests, we found need and opportunity to examine the meaning of human experimentation in an occupational setting where risk is the norm.
Chapter 11. Intentional Releases: Lifting the Veil of Secrecy

In chapter 11 we address the thirteen intentional releases of radiation into the environment specified in the Committee’s charter, as well as additional releases identified during the life of the Committee. In contrast with biomedical experimentation, individu als and communities were not typically the subject of study in these intentional releases. The secret releases were to test intelligence equipment, the potential of radiological warfare, and the mecha nism of the atomic bomb. While the risk posed by intentional releases was relatively small, the releases often took place in secret and remained secret for years.
Chapter 12. Observational Data Gathering

The final case study, in chapter 12, looks at two groups that were put at risk by nuclear weapons development and testing programs and as a consequence became the subjects of observa tional research: workers who mined uranium for the Atomic Energy Commission in the western United States from the 1940s to 1960s and residents of the Marshall Islands, whose Pacific homeland was irradiated as a consequence of a hydrogen bomb test in 1954. While these observational studies do not fit the classic definition of an experiment, in which the investigator controls the variable under study (in this case radiation exposure), they are instances of research involving human subjects. The Committee elected to examine the experiences of the uranium miners and the Marshallese because they raise important issues in the ethics of human research not illustrated in the previous case studies and because numerous public witnesses impressed on the Committee the significance of the lessons to be learned from their histories.
Chapter 13. Secrecy, Human Radiation Experiments, and Intentional Releases

Part II concludes with an exploration of an important theme common to many of the case studies–openness and secrecy in the government’s conduct concerning human radiation research and intentional releases. In chapter 13 we step back and look at what rules governed what the public was told about the topics under the Committee’s purview, whether these rules were publicly known, and whether they were followed…….

Finally, our examination of the history of the past half century has helped us understand that the revision of regulations that govern human research, the creation of new oversight mechanisms, and even a scrupulous professional ethics are necessary, but are not sufficient, means to needed reform. Of at least equal import is the development of a more common understanding among the public of research involving human subjects, its purposes, and its limitations. Furthermore, if the conduct of the government and of the professional community is to be improved, that conduct must be available for scrutiny by the American people so that they can make more informed decisions about the protection and promotion of their own health and that of the members of their family. It is toward that end that we close our report with recommendations for continued openness in government and in biomedical research. It is also toward that end that this report is dedicated. Some of what is regrettable about the past happened, at least in part, because we as citizens let it happen. Let the lessons of history remind us all that the best safeguard for the future is an informed and active citizenry.

end quote.

Presidential Executive Order 12891 of January 15, 1994

Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments

By the authority vested in me as President by the
Constitution and the laws of the United States of
America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment. (a) There shall be
established an Advisory Committee on Human Radiation
Experiments (the “Advisory Committee” or
“Committee”). The Advisory Committee shall be
composed of not more than 15 members to be appointed or
designated by the President. The Advisory Committee
shall comply with the Federal Advisory Committee Act,
as amended, 5 U.S.C. App. 2.

(b) The President shall designate a Chairperson
from among the members of the Advisory Committee.

Sec. 2. Functions. (a) There has been established a
Human Radiation Interagency Working Group, the members
of which include the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary
of Defense, the Secretary of Health and Human Services,
the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, the Attorney
General, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration, the Director of Central
Intelligence, and the Director of the Office of
Management and Budget. As set forth in paragraph (b) of
this section, the Advisory Committee shall provide to
the Human Radiation Interagency Working Group advice
and recommendations on the ethical and scientific
standards applicable to human radiation experiments
carried out or sponsored by the United States
Government. As used herein, “human radiation
experiments” means:

(1) experiments on individuals involving intentional
exposure to ionizing radiation. This category does not
include common and routine clinical practices, such as
established diagnosis and treatment methods, involving
incidental exposures to ionizing radiation;

(2) experiments involving intentional environmental
releases of radiation that (A) were designed to test
human health effects of ionizing radiation; or (B) were
designed to test the extent of human exposure to
ionizing radiation.

Consistent with the provisions set forth in paragraph
(b) of this section, the Advisory Committee shall also
provide advice, information, and recommendations on the
following experiments:

(1) the experiment into the atmospheric diffusion of
radioactive gases and test of detectability, commonly
referred to as “the Green Run test,” by the former
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Air Force in
December 1949 at the Hanford Reservation in Richland,

(2) two radiation warfare field experiments conducted
at the AEC’s Oak Ridge office in 1948 involving gamma
radiation released from non-bomb point sources at or
near ground level;

(3) six tests conducted during 1949-1952 of radiation
warfare ballistic dispersal devices containing
radioactive agents at the U.S. Army’s Dugway, Utah,

(4) four atmospheric radiation-tracking tests in 1950
at Los Alamos, New Mexico; and

(5) any other similar experiment that may later be
identified by the Human Radiation Interagency Working

The Advisory Committee shall review experiments
conducted from 1944 to May 30, 1974. Human radiation
experiments undertaken after May 30, 1974, the date of
issuance of the Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare (“DHEW”) Regulations for the Protection of
Human Subjects (45 C.F.R. 46), may be sampled to
determine whether further inquiry into experiments is
warranted. Further inquiry into experiments conducted
after May 30, 1974, may be pursued if the Advisory
Committee determines, with the concurrence of the Human
Radiation Interagency Working Group, that such inquiry
is warranted.

(b)(1) The Advisory Committee shall determine the
ethical and scientific standards and criteria by which
it shall evaluate human radiation experiments, as set
forth in paragraph (a) of this section. The Advisory
Committee shall consider whether (A) there was a clear
medical or scientific purpose for the experiments; (B)
appropriate medical follow-up was conducted; and (C)
the experiments’ design and administration adequately
met the ethical and scientific standards, including
standards of informed consent, that prevailed at the
time of the experiments and that exist today.

(2) The Advisory Committee shall evaluate the
extent to which human radiation experiments were
consistent with applicable ethical and scientific
standards as determined by the Committee pursuant to
paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If deemed necessary
for such an assessment, the Committee may carry out a
detailed review of experiments and associated records
to the extent permitted by law.

(3) If required to protect the health of
individuals who were subjects of a human radiation
experiment, or their descendants, the Advisory
Committee may recommend to the Human Radiation
Interagency Working Group that an agency notify
particular subjects of an experiment, or their
descendants, of any potential health risk or the need
for medical follow-up.

(4) The Advisory Committee may recommend further
policies, as needed, to ensure compliance with
recommended ethical and scientific standards for human
radiation experiments.

(5) The Advisory Committee may carry out such
additional functions as the Human Radiation Interagency
Working Group may from time to time request.

Sec. 3. Administration. (a) The heads of executive
departments and agencies shall, to the extent permitted
by law, provide the Advisory Committee with such
information as it may require for purposes of carrying
out its functions.

(b) Members of the Advisory Committee shall be
compensated in accordance with Federal law. Committee
members may be allowed travel expenses, including per
diem in lieu of subsistence, to the extent permitted by
law for persons serving intermittently in the
government service (5 U.S.C. 5701-5707).

(c) To the extent permitted by law, and subject to
the availability of appropriations, the Department of
Energy shall provide the Advisory Committee with such
funds as may be necessary for the performance of its

Sec. 4. General Provisions. (a) Notwithstanding the
provisions of any other Executive order, the functions
of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee
Act that are applicable to the Advisory Committee,
except that of reporting annually to the Congress,
shall be performed by the Human Radiation Interagency
Working Group, in accordance with the guidelines and
procedures established by the Administrator of General

(b) The Advisory Committee shall terminate 30 days
after submitting its final report to the Human
Radiation Interagency Working Group.

(c) This order is intended only to improve the
internal management of the executive branch and it is
not intended to create any right, benefit, trust, or
responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable
at law or equity by a party against the United States,
its agencies, its officers, or any person.

(Presidential Signature.)


January 15, 1994. end quote.

Such constraints in the USA dictate that such programs continue today in contractor nations such as Australia, in the current context, at Flinders University. Staffed by a cohort of Brucerites.

January 15, 1994. Save the Date, Pam. The “Nuke or Drown” scaremonger.

CAL-2 Again. Human Radiation Experiments, Propaganda and US influence in Australia under the guise of “Medicine”.

April 22, 2012

The DOE is using the old “Dual Use concept again. They did it in the 1950s injecting radioisotopes into uninformed patients who recieved no benefit, under the pretext of “medical treatment”, whereas the real aim was to document the effects of internal emitters on humans. eg Simon Shaw.–book-review-a232802

Welsome, Eileen. The Plutonium Files- America’s Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War. New York: The Dial Press, 1999.


simon shaw
CAL-2, 5 yr-old Simon Shaw and his mum. Simon was flown from Australia to the US on the pretext of medical treatment for his bone cancer. Instead, he was secretly injected with plutonium to see what would happen. His urine was measured, and he was flown back to Australia. Though his bodily fluids remained radioactive, Australian medical staff were not informed. No benefit was imparted to Simon by this alleged “medical treatment” and he died of his disease after suffering a trip across the world and back at the behest of the USA despite his painful condition. The USA merely wanted a plutonium test subject. They called him CAL-2. And did their deed under the cover of phony medicine.

“Congress of the United States, House of Representatives, Washington, DC 20515-2107, Edward J. Markey, 7th District, Massachusetts Committees, [word deleted] and Commerce, Chairman Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance, Natural Resources, Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe] MEMORANDUM To: Congressman Edward J. Markey From: Staff Subject: The Plutonium Papers Date: 4/20/94

Staff Memo on Plutonium Papers

The medical file for Cal-2 also contains correspondence seeking follow-up from Argonne National Laboratory in the 1980s. Cal-2 was an Australian boy, not quite five years old, who was flown to the U.S. in 1946 for treatment of bone cancer. During his hospitalization in San Francisco, he was chosen as a subject for plutonium injection. He returned to Australia, where he died less than one year later. Document 700474 is a letter from Dr. Stebbings to an official at the Institute of Public Health in Sydney, Australia, in an attempt to reach the family of Cal-2. This letter reports that the child was “injected with a long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclide.” Document 700471 is a letter from Dr. Stebbings to New South Wales, Australia (names and town deleted), inquiring about recollections of the boy’s hospitalization in 1946. The letter notes that, “those events have become rather important in some official circles here,” but provides few details to the family. A hand-written note on the letter reports no response through October 8, 1987. Considering the history on the lack of informed consent with these experiments, it is surprising that the letters to Australia failed to mention the word “plutonium.” The Australian news media has since identified Cal-2 as Simeon Shaw, the son of a wool buyer in New South Wales, and information on the injection created an international incident. The information in the medical file does indicate that at a time when Secretary Herrington told you that no follow-up would be conducted on living subjects, the Department of Energy was desperately interested in conducting follow-up on a deceased Australian patient. In an effort to determine the full extent of follow-up by the Department after 1986, your staff has requested, through the Department’s office of congressional affairs, the opportunity to speak with Dr. Stebbings, Dr. Robertson, and any other officials who may have been involved in the follow-up. So far, that request has been unsuccessful. It remains an open question as to what was the full extent of follow-up performed in the 1980s, and whether the efforts then would facilitate any further follow-up on subjects now. It seems appropriate for the Interagency Working Group to address these questions as its efforts continue.”

Source: National Security Archives, George Washington University,

See also ACHRE Final Report.


Mr. President, you are wrong if you think you can do the same again re hormesis funding in Australia as the USA did with CAL-2. We have not forgotten and do not trust you or your paid agents in Australian universities such as Flinders.

Is the government of the United States of America a mere footstool for nuclear industry still?

Dear reader, do you have a “CAL” number, like Simon Shaw did?

How would we know? Simon was not allowed to know and going on the actions of the members of the Sykes DOE team at public meetings in Adelaide, such as the UniSA one, any attempt at public discussion is shouted down by paid contractors of the US Department of Energy.

IN FUKUSHIMA, WHAT “CAL” number are they up to? We probably will never know.

I propose that the US DOE funding of Syke, Bhut et al at the Flinders University low dose reseach project uses the very same “Dual Use” deception. The public is promised a medical miracle. The actual aim is to further nuclear activity. In the South Australian context that industry aim is greater uranium industry with greater pollution presented as a phony health benefit. The long term aim is to enable a uranium enrichment plant in South Australia and a nuclear power plant at Port Augusta in order to power the uranium mines and to power a desalination water plant to enable this. As it is, the uranium industry in South Australia is seriously compromising the Great Artesian Basin by its over use of ground water.

Sykes claim that radiation is “like vitamins” is straight out of the 1950s US AEC book on how to abuse a population to further nuclear ambitions. The protocol is exactly the same. In my opinion.

Try coming round to my place to shut me up Dr Bhut. Prof Broinowski had every right to speak at Uni SA about Fukushima without you attempting to shut him up. You benefit from US DOE grant money and you fail to declare that. I refuse to be a Simon Shaw. I have a right to speak, to seek, to learn and to know. And a right to express that, no matter what your pay masters may think of me and my opinions.

The plans in place for South Australia, and for which the South Australian population are being softened up for, involve an insane circle of nuclear power enabling the mining and enrichment of the fuel to power the reactor desired to power the fuel to power the proposed reactor. It is totally nuts.

The fact is South Australia cannot supply the electricity needed for the expansion of the uranium mine from its current capacity. And for the approved expansion of the mines to go ahead, additional generating capacity, not needed for anything else, has to be built. And the miners want that electricity generating plant to be a nuclear reactor.

A mad dog chasing its tail. Mindless circles, endless cycles of public deception.

Dr Bhut challenged Adjunct Professor Richard Broinowski’s right to speak at his lecture on Fukushima and its consequences. What Bhut failed to disclose was his role as a funded US DOE contractor engaged in a program paid for by US DOE which is an organisation chartered to promote nuclear power. Broinowski’s view run counter to that DOE Charter. Bhut’s challenge at the meeting was the act of an agent on duty pursuant to the goals of the Flinders University / US DOE contract. In my opinion.

The historical equivalent would be Dr Hamilton accusing Simon Shaw’s mum of being unqualified to object to what the USA did to her son.

Bhut publically complains that people forget the Union Carbide Bhopal disaster. Bhut does not remember the Australian nuclear experience at all. He encourages in fact the very thing he complains about – encouragement of unknowing.

Ironically, Union Carbide was a US AEC contractor organisation commissioned to write a report refuting, falsely, the Gofman / Tamplin position on the local cell impacts of internalised hot particles. Union Carbide proposed that the dose should be ascribed to the entire organ, not the cells actually irradiated. Thus diluting the does actually inflicted on a few cells to millions of cells.

The same technique of dilution nuclear industry uses today.

What use is the nuclear industry in South Australia making of the statements of Sykes, Bhut et. al.?

““Addressing the South Australian Chamber of Mines and Energy in Adelaide, chair of the uranium company Toro Energy Erica Smith said the true cost of coal was not yet being paid for by the community. She also said that there was a strong argument that some radiation “was good for you” …..”

Adelaide Advertiser newspaper, August 13, 2011 page 7.” Straight out of the mouth of Pam Sykes and Bobby Scott and US DOE Low Dose. On this occassion, Dr Bhut did not rise up in outrage at the idea of a geologist making medical statements they are unqualified to make. The statement, based on the old agenda now rekindled by the DOE program at Flinders University, is pure Marshall Brucer. Hormesis, for which there is no proven data, and which was invented to thwart the legal action brought by the radium dial painters of the 1920s. Brucer claimed that radiation was good for you, and that those dial painters who did survive (from the cohort from which so many suffered and died in their young lives), lived longer lives because of the benefits of radium ingestion in the workplace.

Forget history, be doomed to repeat it.

If Toros gets its way and an enrichment plant is built, powered by a nuclear reactor in South Australia, it will be because that old trick – dual use – medicine as a front for nuclear industry – has again worked.

So don’t forget Simon Shaw Dr Bhut. I remember Union Carbide very well sir.

As it was, the 1920s and 1930s saw the radium dial painting industry loose its legal battle against the workers it had made fatally ill. The main contractor for the radium dial painting companies was the US military, who watched with great interest the onset of illness and the progression of disease among the radium workers. The texts describing the radium dial painter exposure and effects are listed in the DOE online archive as being among the first books used and kept by the Manhattan Project from 1942.

Today, the Japanese government is trying to tell its subjects that “some radiaiton is good for you”. Just like the dial painting companies did in 1925. It was a standing order for the radium girls to lick their radium paint brushes with their lips in order to produce fine radium paint lines. They suffered and died as a result. There was no benefit. Hormesis is crap.

But it is on this old basis of deception to deny harm and falsely promise benefit that Fukushima has not been properly evacuated and children there live in a contaminated environment caused by the high pollution of nuclear industry. And they are forced to eat contaminated food. It took months for the Japanese nuclear authorities to even admit meltdown had occurred, and all the while the nuclear authorities labelled truth tellers liars, when in fact, the liars are the usual suspects. The Japanese government now spends millions of yen monitoring the internet for accuracy. I await their spell checking of my work.

As regards the true costs of nuclear energy, there needs to be a fission product emissions tax of billions of dollars per microcurie emitted. A cesium tax, an xenon tax, an iodine tax, a strontium tax. Nuclear isnt not non emitting. It is highly polluting at the best of times and dirty filthy and full of lies at the worst of times.

God speed Uncle Kevin.