The government/industry side of the debates is hidden and devious.
1. Internal emitters and hot particle impact vs external dose as the only predictor of harm.
2. The Linear No Threshold model (risk proportional to dose) vs hormesis and its “good” and “bad” thresholds.
The officials and industry spokesmen who seed society with their view are unwilling to openly argue their views in front of qualified opponents. The public are thus denied the right to learn.
As it is, the whole episode is being used to polarize society in the matter of the impacts from the radiological contamination of the United States as confirmed by US government data.
The manner in which the situation is being handled is reprehensible.
The following has never been contradicted by any authority. It still holds true. If it is true, accumulated dose wipes out the claims of hormesis within the energy level band occupied by the fission and fuels as internal emitters and external dose is stated by Hamilton to be meaningless except for detection of the particles which are the vector for the delivered dose. Delivered internal dose is way higher than measured external dose:
The individual and regular reports made by Hamilton to the Manhattan Project from 1942 are listed at the DOE Opennet online archive. The following is a post war paper dealing with what was learnt.
The Metabolism of the Fission Products and the Heaviest Elements
Jos. G. Hamilton, M.D.
+ Author Affiliations
Division of Medical Physics (Berkeley), Divisions of Medicine and Radiology (San Francisco) University of California
↵1 This document is based on work performed under Contract No. W-7405-eng-48-A for the Manhattan Project and the Atomic Energy Commission.
It is a brief version of material to be published in the Plutonium Project Record of the Manhattan Project Technical Series. Presented at the Thirty-second Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, Chicago, Ill., Dec. 1–6, 1946.
“Introduction and Methods During the early phases of the development of the Plutonium Project, it became apparent that one of the most serious problems to be encountered was the protection of personnel working in this field against the immense quantities of radiation and radioactive materials produced by the chain-reacting pile. The most important hazard that arises from the release of nuclear energy are radiations produced directly from fission and subsequently emitted by the resultant fission products and plutonium. The fission products can produce injury either as an external source of radiation or, if they gain entry into the body, by acting as an internal radioactive poison, quite analogous to radium poisoning. This latter consideration is a major concern, since the amounts required within the body to produce injurious effects are minute compared to the quantities necessary to induce damage by external beta and gamma irradiation” : Dr Joseph Hamilton, Manhattan Engineer District, Met Lab; AEC, Project Sunshine, AEC, Department of Biology and Health.
This information stands. Hot Particles are not merely removable “skin dose hazards”. As Internal Emitters they present specific hazards. US authorities are wrong to side with Industry on the matter of these two debates.