The following essay is in response to a reader’s response to my blog posts
“Missing Medical Files and the central nuclear lie” https://nuclearhistory.wordpress.com/2012/11/09/missing-medical-files-and-the-central-nuclear-lie/ In the comment the reader stated “Do you have any references? It would be helpful if you’d link to references that support your claims.”
As I explained in reply, the blog post was an introduction to a series of subsequent posts which consisted of scans straight from the Journal of the Australian Atomic Ex-Servicemen’s Association. Further, throughout the blog, posts have been devoted to the suppression of medical evidence by nuclear authorities and in many of these earlier posts, citations have been given.
This post. Which aims to provide references which establishes that suppression and deception is the standard modus operandi of nuclear authorities, will be a lengthy one and will take some time to complete.
The evidence is copious and extends from 1924, the year the link “radium painter jaw” and the occupation of radium dial painting was demonstrated medically through to the denial of medical records to British nuclear veteran (Christmas Island Hydrogen bomb test veteran) Mr Whyte in 2012.
This post is in progress. It will take some weeks to complete. To start with I will be merely dumping relevant pieces on this post page before knocking into shape as a coherent essay. The final citations and quotations will consist of those which relate to the situation in Japan post March 2011.
Nuclear activity has a rich history of deception.
The radium dial painters suffering was intense and highly public. In the 1920s world wide newspapers and scientific literature reported on the alpha radiation induced deaths and injuries suffered by people employed in applying radioactive paint to instruments such as clocks and compasses. Alpha radiation emitted by radium paint caused these health effects. (Sources: Frome, Paul, 1999, “Radioluminescen Paint,” on line, Oak Ridge Associated Universities. http://www.orau.org/ptp/collection/radioluminescent/radioluminescentinfo.htm Paul writes in this publication: “In the US, the first company to produce radioluminescent paint was the Radium Luminous Material Corporation in Newark New Jersey. It was founded in 1914 by Sabin von Sochocky and George Willis, both physicians. Their operations expanded tremendously when the United States entered World War I, and in 1917 they moved from Newark to Orange, New Jersey. They also got into the business of mining and producing radium. In 1921, they changed their name to the U.S. Radium Corporation.
The brand name for the radioluminescent paint produced by US Radium Corporation was “Undark.” Standard Chemical Company used the name “Luna” and the Cold Light Manufacturing Company, a subsidiary of the Radium Company of Colorado, made “Marvelite.”
According to NCRP Report No. 95, radium has not been used in radioluminescent watches since 1968, or in clocks since 1978 (these dates are approximate). “… “During the 1920s, the radium paint was applied to clock and watch components in a variety of ways: painting it on with a brush, painting it with a pen or stylus, applying it with a mechanical press, and dusting. The latter procedure involved dusting a freshly painted dial with radioluminescent powder so that the powder would stick to the paint.
The original practice of using the mouth to put a point on a brush is described as follows by Robley Evans: “In painting the numerals on a fine watch, for example, an effort to duplicate the shaded script numeral of a professional penman was made. The 2, 3, 6, and 8 were hardest to make correctly, for the fine lines which contrast with the heavy strokes in these numerals were usually too broad, even with the use of the finest, clipped brushes. To rectify these broad parts the brush was cleaned and then drawn along the line like an eraser to remove the excess paint. For wiping and tipping the brush the workers found that that either a cloth or their fingers were too harsh, but by wiping the brush clean between their lips the proper erasing point could be obtained. This led to the so-called practice of “tipping” or pointing the brush in the lips. In some plants the brush was also tipped before painting a numeral. The paint so wiped off the brush was swallowed.”
It might be worth noting that tipping the brushes was not something the dial painters just decided to do. At least in some plants they were actually trained how to do it. In fact, the instructors sometimes swallowed some of the paint to show it was harmless. It has been estimated that a dial painter would ingest a few hundred to a few thousand microcuries of radium per year. While most of the ingested radium would pass through the body, some fraction of it would be absorbed and accumulate in the skeleton. Later on, Robley Evans would establish a maximum permissible body burden for radium of 0.1 uCi.
As a result of the ingestion of the radium, many of the dial painters developed medical problems of varying degrees of severity. The first deaths occurred in the mid 1920s, and by 1926 the practice of tipping the brushes seems to have ended.”
Griffin, Noel, 6 Feb. 1996, “Radiation Induced cancer in humans,” online, Triumf Safety Group Radiation Protection Training Course.) http://trshare.triumf.ca/~safety/EHS/rpt/rpt_4/node20.html Quote: “There are many well documented cases of radiation induced cancer in humans. The early scientists who worked with x-rays and radioactive substances did not realise the risk. Many died from skin and bone cancer and leukemia . Leukemia is a disease characterised by a great excess of immature white cells in the blood and can be likened to a blood cancer. Marie Curie , for example, who first isolated radium from uranium ore died of leukemia as did her daughter- assistant, (her husband on the other hand died in a traffic accident).
In the 1920’s, watch dials were painted with a radium based luminous paint. The employees, all women, who did this work often licked their paint brushes to give them a sharp point and ingested a small quantity of the paint each time they did this. The radium in the paint collected in the bones of these employees and resulted in bone tumours 8 to 40 years later.”
Yet, the US engaged in the technology of radium dial painting late. Paul Frame in his publication cited above writes: “The invention of radioluminescent paint can be attributed to William J Hammer who mixed radium with zinc sulfide (in 1902), and applied the paint to various items including watches and clock dials. In a case of bad judgment, he failed to patent the idea. Recognizing a good opportunity, a gemologist at Tiffany & Company, by the name of George Kunz, did patent it. Kunz and Charles Baskerville, a chemist, made their paint by mixing radium-barium carbonate with zinc sulfide and linseed oil.
At that time, at least in the US, radioluminescent paint saw little application. It stayed in the bottle. But in Europe, especially Switzerland, things were different. Quoting Ross Mullner “there were so many radium painters in that country that it was common to recognize them on the streets even on the darkest nights because of the glow around them: their hair sparkled almost like a halo.”” Source: Frome, Paul, 1999, “Radioluminescent Paint,” on line, Oak Ridge Associated Universities. http://www.orau.org/ptp/collection/radioluminescent/radioluminescentinfo.htm
It can be seen from the foregoing that industrial radium dial painting commenced in Europe in 1902, while it commenced in the USA in 1914. It can also be seen from the above that the latent period for radium induced bone cancer is given by Paul Frame of ORAU (Oak Ridge Associated Universities) as eight years.
It can also be seen from the above that industrial radium dial painting increased markedly in US due to the military need for luminous military instruments from 1917 on. Other sources concretely state that the US military was the major organization which contracted the services of Radium Luminous Material Corporation, later renamed the U.S. Radium Corporation.
Opinion: though freely available English language texts and other sources which recount the tragedy of the radium dial painting industry focus on the US experience, it is beyond my belief that the US Military, as an organization to devise and perfect weapons and the art of war, would be unaware of the longer experience of radium dial painting in Europe, and of its famously luminous haired workforce. The idea of radiation as a weapon is not new. For example, in 1914 H.G.Wells published his book “The World Set Free”, in which he describes an “atom bomb” which Wikipedia describes as follows: “In Wells’s story, the “atomic bombs” have no more force than ordinary high explosive—but they “continue to explode” for long periods of time:
Never before in the history of warfare had there been a continuing explosive; indeed, up to the middle of the twentieth century the only explosives known were combustibles whose explosiveness was due entirely to their instantaneousness; and these atomic bombs which science burst upon the world that night were strange even to the men who used them.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_World_Set_Free
The idea of of deploying radioactivity against persons for long periods of time is thus easily seen in the historical setting as an obvious one and one which entered the popular imagination decades before General Groves would claim all credit for the significant discoveries and technologies for the Manhattan Project. The idea of internalized bone seeking radionuclides as agents of harm in particular predates Groves arrival on the seen and is directly related to the findings of Robley Evans in his work attempting to aid the radium dial painters.
I have not investigated the fate of the earlier European radium dial painters. However, the horrors they suffered will not be different, I think, to those suffered by the American by the workers now known as the “Radium Girls”.
The New Jersey Medical School has a web page devoted to the doctor who’s research “Proved that Ra-226 Caused Death of the Radium Dial Painters”. The link is : http://njms.umdnj.edu/departments/division_radiation/HenryMartlandandtheRadiumDialPainters.cfm
To quote in part from this source: “Harrison S. Martland’s Research Proved that Ra-226 Caused Death of the Radium Dial Painters” ..”Dr. Martland made important contributions in the fields of pathology and forensic medicine. The work that attracted the most attention was his research begun in 1924, on the effects of radioactive material on the human body. Dr. Martland determined that minute traces of radioactivity contained in luminous paint had caused the deaths of watch dial painters employed at the US Radium Corporation in Orange, NJ. The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) credits Dr. Martland’s work with having made it possible for atomic development to proceed with comparative safety. At the request of the AEC, Dr. Martland prepared a permanent exhibit on radioactive dangers and precautions which is on display in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
H. S. Martland, Microscopic changes of certain anemias due to radioactivity. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2, 465-472 (1926).
H. S. Martland, The occurence of malignancy in radioactive persons. Am. J. Cancer 15, 2435-2516 (1931).”
end quote. Why it took from 1902 until 1925 for medicine to prove the link between ingested radium paint remains a mystery. One wonders what the physicians who founded the US radium industry, Dr Sabin von Sochocky and Dr George Willis, had been doing besides advocating the health benefits of radium. Which was at the time promoted as a health tonic. Indeed the concept of radiation hormesis (the alleged health benefits of “low dose” radiation) was widely and actively promoted by the industry. As for the AEC, it could not, given the legal success based upon scientific proof, deny the dangers of internalised radio emitters such as radium, radio strontium, radio cesium and radio iodine, but it could pretend to claim safety based upon doses of radium ingested (as calculated by Robley Evans) which did not produce illness and death, even though in the nuclear age no single source exists. In the 1920s the dial painters had not been subjected to either bomb test fallout, nor routine reactor emissions. They had a single industrial supply of the natural radionuclide, Radium 226 (and Ra 222 in the cheaper paints).
What was the actual human experience of the radium dial painters? What happened to them when they first took their employer to court seeking justice and some pittance so that their toddlers might not be forced to live as paupers ? Did the good Doctors who founded the US radium industry act with good grace and compassion or did they in fact seek to label the afflicted women as evil doers who were actually suffering sexually transmitted disease due to poor impulse control? You guessed it. They were labelled sluts, and they didn’t, according to the employer, have any radium related disease, but rather, according to the employer, they suffered from Syphilis. Radium, they maintained, was harmless and a tonic.
The Monday, June 04, 1928, issue of “Time” Magazine carried an article entitled “Medicine: Poison Paintbrush”. A brief paragraph of this article is available for free at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,731868,00.html To quote: “That the world may see streaks of light through the long hours of darkness, Orange, N. J., women hired themselves to the U. S. Radium Corporation. Daily they took up watch dials and painted the blind numerals with a magic dye which made them glow at night. The company paid a high price for the paint. When a few drops were left in the glass after the brushes were twirled and pointed, supervisors complained. The girls were taught to point and clean the brushes with their lips. Thirteen died.” (The article in can be purchased from Time. Title: Medicine: Poison Paintbrush – TIME Publication: TIME Magazine
Publisher:Time Inc. Date: Jun 4, 1928 Copyright © 1928, Time Inc. All rights reserved)
In fact more than 13 died, and the suffering endured was immense. The public watched the progress of the court cases via the newspapers. Photographs of the women plaintiffs taken progressively over the duration of the legal proceedings showed the decline in their health. At the start, most were able to walk into court. Toward the end, some had to be carried to court in their hospital beds.
Given the scientific proof provided by Martland in 1925, the legal contest presented by the dial painting companies against their afflicted employees is an early case of nuclear inhumanity. And is seen as such by both the history of labour law and by victims of nuclear activity from later eras. For the treatment remains the same. The same techniques are used. I will show that by using the alleged lessons of the case, Groves and the Manhattan Project claimed the safety of the “radium standard” (of allegedly safe exposure, using a conversion table of sorts, to produce an “allowable” internal dose of any radioactive substance using a comparison with radium. It did not work. The Plutonium workers suffered for decades against the back drop of official claims of safety in the Manhattan Project. Not until 1990s did the US government admit to the lie. More on that later.
The Voice of America has a piece entitled “‘Radium Girls’ Remembered for Role in Shaping US Labor Law” published at http://www.voanews.com/content/radium-girls-remembered-for-role-in-shaping-us-labor-law-129169888/144746.html The article, by Kane Farabaugh, Last updated on: September 01, 2011 8:00 PM, reads in part as follows: “In the early part of the 20th century, the chemical element radium was widely believed to cure a number of ailments. It also was used as a way to create glow-in-the-dark faces on watches and clocks. The case of several women who painted those clock and watch faces in a small town in the Midwest state of Illinois helped to raise awareness to the dangers of radium, and forever changed labor laws in the United States.”…”What no one talked about were the harmful effects to humans caused by exposure to the radioactive radium. Young women in their late teens and early twenties were recruited to work at the Radium Dial factory in Ottawa. They painted the faces of watches and clocks with radium, which caused them to glow in the dark.
“The women were instructed to lick point their brushes before they would paint on the clocks,” said Piller.
By 1925, the management at Radium Dial was aware of the toxic effects of the chemical element, but failed to inform their employees, or take precautions against further exposure.
“Many of the women developed cancerous tumors, honeycombed and fragile bones, and suffered painful amputations.
“They were dying. The doctors were lying to them. The town was against them for protesting,” said Leonard Grossman, Jr., whose father, Leonard Grossman, Sr. was hired as an attorney to represent one of seven women, dubbed “The Society of the Living Dead,” which started a legal battle in 1934 against the owners of Radium Dial.
“It was such a dramatic form of workplace injury because the workers didn’t know for years that they were injured,” said Grossman. “This was something insidious that was going on inside their bodies and the employers convinced them that this was good for them.”
The case of the “Radium Girls,” which also included workers from a similar plant in New Jersey, traveled all the way up the legal system, reaching the U.S. Supreme Court.
The women eventually won, and received a modest settlement from the United States Radium Corporation, the parent company of Radium Dial.
Among many different ways their case affected labor law in the U.S., it led to changes in workers compensation, and the creation of radiation safety standards.
It should have closed a chapter to an unjust episode in the history of the small town of Ottawa, Illinois.
But many in the town blamed the women for the loss of jobs during the Great Depression. It soon became a taboo topic just as many of the “Radium Girls” were dying from their exposure.
“People didn’t want to talk about it too much,” said Bob Eschbach, Ottawa’s mayor. “They thought it would give Ottawa a black eye, people might have the wrong impression, and they really kind of tried to sweep it under the rug.”
Eschbach said the town’s entanglement with radium didn’t end when the case of the “Radium Girls” settled in court.
The chemical element found its way into the soil and groundwater, contaminating residential and commercial properties around town.
The dangers of radium no longer was isolated to those who worked in the Radium Dial plant, or its successor, Luminous Processes.
After Luminous Processes closed in 1978, the vacant building stood as a radioactive reminder of Ottawa’s long history with the chemical element.
The town became the site of a costly “superfund” cleanup project of the United States Environmental Protection Agency in the 1980s. It demolished the existing Luminous Processes structure, and excavated the former location of Radium Dial, in addition to other sites across town.
“We had over a dozen radioactive sites, all of which are now cleaned up, but two, and we’re working on those. So I think when those things started to happen, attitudes started to change,” said Eschbach.
Now, in Ottawa, talking about the “Radium Girls” is no longer off-limits, thanks in part to the efforts of Piller.
“I was reading through a book and it said no monuments have ever been raised for the “Radium Girls.” And that really hit a nerve with me, because these women, as not a lot of people know, set radiation standards that we use still today,” she said.
Honoring the ‘Radium Girls’
Piller spent the last five years trying to raise money and awareness to build a permanent memorial, ensuring no one else forgets the story of the “Radium Girls.”
A life-size bronze statue, created by Piller’s father, with a woman holding a tulip in one hand and a paint brush in the other, now stands in front of the former location of Luminous Processes.
“The scars that this put on Ottawa have healed. I want it to be an inspiration, I want it be a memorial for these women, something that we should never forget, because if we don’t talk about it, it’s as bad as forgetting,” said Piller.
A ceremony to dedicate the memorial this Labor Day weekend drew a crowd of hundreds – including Rose Baima, Pauline Fuller and June Menne – three of the few surviving employees from the Luminous Processes factory.
As Piller tries to help Ottawa heal the wounds caused by the deadly radium, the cleanup effort is not entirely over.
A contaminated site on the outskirts of town still needs to be remediated, a process that could take up to five years at a cost estimated over $80 million dollars.” End quote. And so, I believe, the modus operandi was put in train.
The role of radium within the Manhattan Project and the subsequent nuclear age is important. Prior to 1939 there was no interest in uranium. The main source of world radium supply were the Belgian owned uranium mines in the Congo. Known then of course as radium mines, the uranium was the slag, the radium being extracted from the ore and shipped to Belgium, and from there, to the rest of the world.
The fate of the original “radium miners” is not well documented, however, the current state of those old Congo mines is poor and is a source of current radiochemical pollution. In the context of this account of the suppression of medical evidence, the US record shows suppression of proof of the harms of radium dated 1925. Affected employees were not told, and employers suppressed this medical information. The story of secret tracking of former radium dial painters in the US and Europe is an early example of unethical use of medical knowledge and the abuse of individuals who were used, even through to the 1990s, as guinea pigs without knowledge or consent.
Maria Rentetzi has written a paper entitled “The women radium dial painters as experimental subjects (1920–1990) or what counts as human experimentation”, published NTM International Journal of History & Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology & Medicine
September 2004, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 233-248, and available for purchase from Springerlink at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00048-004-0201-3
The Abstract for this paper reads as follows “The case of women radium dial painters — women who tipped their brushes while painting the dials of watches and instruments with radioactive paint — has been extensively discussed in the medical and historical literature. Their painful and abhorrent deaths have occupied the interest of physicians, lawyers, politicians, military agencies, and the public. Hardly any discussion has concerned, however, the use of those women as experimental subjects in a number of epidemiological studies that took place from 1920 to 1990. This article addresses the neglected issue of human experimentation in relation to the radium dial painters. Although women’s medical examinations have been classified as simple, routine measurements of radiation burden on the body and presented as a great offer to humanity, for more than fifty years those women had been repeatedly used as experimental subjects without proper consent. I argue that through this case it becomes obvious that the issue of defining what counts as human experimentation shifts from an epistemological to a serious ethical and political question, concerning the making of scientific knowledge while issues of gender related to this process are also discussed.” Maria Rentetzi, “The women radium dial painters as experimental subjects (1920–1990) or what counts as human experimentation”, via Springerlink.
No doubt nuclear industry would say well doctors did the survey, its ok. But of course, as the Presidential ACHRE committee found in 1994, if there is no consent, if there is no expectation of benefit for the persons involved, no only is it not medicine, it is in breach of the Nuremberg Principles. This report is common knowledge and nuclear industry has spent the time since 1995 doing it’s best, in my opinion, to induce collective amnesia in relation to it.
But before the ACHRE investigation and final report, there was the report of Senator Markey, and this report is where I head next. For in the 1980s, the Markey report proved that military and civilian personnel were deliberately exposed to ionising radiation without consent or knowledge, had medical information with held, and suffered at the hands of nuclear authorities who lied, it has been proven, for decades about the nature, extent, purpose and outcomes of these illegal exposures. The modus operandi established in 1925 continues to this day. And even today, sections of nuclear industry rant about the benefits of radiation, and the population is told it is a benefit or harmless, just as the Radium Girls were. Just as the nuclear veterans were. Just as the Downwinders were. Just as in 2011 the Japanese people were told by a nuclear industry sponsored cadre of academics entrenched within Japanese academe that plutonium was safe to eat and that radio cesium is fine in food because bananas exist.
The modus operandi did not work in 1925, it will not work in 2012. What the lies actually do succeed in doing is to delay justice. And this delay is a perversion of justice. The individual cannot compete against the finances available to the State and to State sponsored organizations, whether the British Ministry of Defense or TEPCO, when it comes sustaining lengthy legal contests.
“In November 1986 a report by the staff of Massachusetts Congressman Ed Markey was released, entitled American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: three decades of radiation experiments on U.S. citizens. The Markey report stated there were thirty-one human radiation experiments involving nearly 700 people. The report received only cursory media coverage. Markey urged the Department of Energy to make every effort to find the experimental subjects and compensate them for damages, which did not occur. DOE officials knew who conducted the experiments, and the names of some of the subjects. After the report was released, Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush resisted opening investigations of the radiation experiments.
The report found that between 1945 and 1947 eighteen hospital patients were injected with plutonium. The doctors selected patients likely to die in the near future. Despite the doctors’ prognoses, several lived for decades after.
The American Nuclear Guinea Pigs report stated:
“ Although these experiments did provide information on the retention and absorption of radioactive material by the human body, the experiments are nonetheless repugnant because human subjects were essentially used as guinea pigs and calibration devices. Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advisory_Committee_on_Human_Radiation_Experiments references in quoted text: ^ a b Welsome p. 414-415, 544^ Moreno, p. X ^ Military Medical Ethics, Volume 2. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 1-4289-1066-2. p. 525
^ Moreno, p. IX, XI ^ Karen, MacPherson (November 21 1999). “‘The Plutonium Files’ by Eileen Welsome ‘Plutonium Files’ sheds light on inhuman experiment”. Pittsburgh Post Gazette.
The complete Markey Report can be downloaded from the Department of Energy’s Opennet site, as demanded by President Clinton’s Executive Order which demands such openness in the light of the Markey and ACHRE findings.
DOE Opennet : https://www.osti.gov/opennet/ Entering “Senator Markey” into the search box on that page results in 25 hits. In terms of providing the request made to me by a reader to provide references that “support your claims”. These things are not claims, they are evidenced based. The item of interest here is the document entitled “AMERICAN NUCLEAR GUINEA PIGS: THREE DECADES OF RADIATION EXPERIMENTS ON US CITIZENS: (MARKEY REPORT)”. The document link displays the details of the publication as follows:
“AMERICAN NUCLEAR GUINEA PIGS: THREE DECADES OF RADIATION EXPERIMENTS ON US CITIZENS: (MARKEY REPORT)
Subject Terms: CANCERS
Document Location: Location – NNSA/NSO Nuclear Testing Archive Address – P.O. Box 98521 City – Las Vegas State – NV Zip – 89193-8521 Phone – (702)794-5106 Fax – (702)794-5107 Email – CIC@NV.DOE.GOV
Document Type: REPORT
Publication Date: 1986 Nov 01
Declassification Status: Unknown
Document Pages: 0040
Accession Number: NV0758444
Originating Research Org.: RADIATION EXPERIMENTS COMMAND CENTER
OpenNet Entry Date: 1999 Jul 13
Link page: https://www.osti.gov/opennet/detail.jsp?osti_id=16007522&query_id=3
Click on the link at the top of that page to download the Markey Report.
Alternately, the direct link for the document is https://www.osti.gov/opennet/servlets/purl/16007522-IV9agR/16007522.pdf
I am not going to post the entire contents of this document on my blog. The reader who demands proof needs to do a teenie bit of work themselves : ie download the document yourself and read it.
However, here are a couple of pages:
I will leave the duplication of the pages of the Markey Report there, hoping that the interested reader demanding proof of my “claims” (statements of facts actually) will expend the effort to download the Report and actually go to the other links provided in this post.
No doubt around the year 2025 in Japan similar report will be written, spurred by growing disquiet among the population living not just with events since March 2011, but with the bullshit from authorities which serve to conceal, deny and obstruct the proper functioning of democracy and of justice. But that’s just my opinion.
The United States is to be applauded for its openness in these matters. In the British Commonwealth, the information regime is more akin to that of the USSR, perhaps worse. More on that later.
Further setting the standard, in an act of compassion President Ronald Reagan signed the Veterans’ Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act on October 24, 1984. The President stated : ”
1984: Book II
The American Presidency Project
“I am pleased today to sign H.R. 1961, the Veterans’ Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act. This bill represents the culmination of nearly 2 years of work between the administration and the Congress on the best way to handle the claims of veterans who believe they may have been injured by their exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam or to low-level ionizing radiation from their participation in the atomic weapons atmospheric testing program in the 1950’s and early 1960’s or from the occupation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. H.R. 1961 establishes a responsible and workable process for consideration by the Veterans Administration of these claims.” “Veterans deserve to know the truth about the consequences of their exposure to Agent Orange or to low-level radiation, and they should not live in fear if that fear is unjustified. This bill will facilitate the search for that truth, and I am therefore pleased to sign it.” http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=39308 In regards to Australian members of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan, which saw service in the period between the surrender of Japan to the signing of the Peace Treaty in 1952, the Australian Government has a far different attitude to that of the USA regarding the safety of radiation affected areas of Japan in the period. Australia maintains that from 1946 the areas of Hiroshima, Kure and other places Australians saw service (both in company with US Forces and independently under Australian command) were perfectly safe. Over the decades the US view on this has changed. But more on that later. It also involves the suppression of medical documents relevant to nuclear veterans.
Further, two years after Senator Markey presented his report to Congress and the American people, President Reagan signed into law Public Law 100-321, 20.5.88. This law acknowledges the following diseases to be suffered by US nuclear veterans as a result of their exposure to ionizing radiation in the course of their duties:
Leukaemia (other than chronic Iymphocytic leukaemia)
Cancer of the Thyroid
Cancer of the Breast
Cancer of the Pharynx
Cancer of the Oesophagus
Cancer of the Stomach
Cancer of the small intestine
Cancer of the Pancreas
Lymphomas (except Hodgkinís disease)
Cancer of the Bile Ducts
Cancer of the Gall Bladder
Cancer of the liver (except if cirrhosis or hepatitis indicated)
Cancer of the urinary tract, which also translates to the bladder and kidneys
Cancer of the salivary glands
Incorporated into public law 100-321, 20.5.88.
“This law gives US atomic exservicemen due recognition for the unusual service they rendered, and is an expression of gratitude of the American people toward their atomic veterans The law enables Veteran Affairs benefits to flow to US atomic veterans who are afflicted. The US government in relation to nuclear veterans considers the nature of service plus the development of any of the above diseases sufficient cause to quality for Veteran Benefits regardless of recorded dose rates received. All US nuclear test service personnel are officially Veterans.”
In contrast, the official position of the Australian Atomic Ex-Servicemen’s Association is that 90% of the Australians who saw service in Hiroshima and Kure and other radiation affected areas of Japan died before their time. Indeed the Federal Court of Australia has awarded compensation to one widow after it was demonstrated that her late husband’s premature death from radiogenic cancer was reasonably attributable to his drinking radiologically contaminated water in Hiroshima Prefecture.
Which raises some very interesting questions. Not only about the extent of the fallout in Japan, but the nature of it and the dose of it needed to cause disease and premature death.
And here I will turn to the Japanese record, which shows in no uncertain manner that in 1945 and the Cold War era, a major priority was to hide the radiological consequences of the atomic bombs dropped upon Japan in order to avoid the condemnation of the civilized world. Reference: The Frank Report, June 11, 1945. Report of the Committee on Political and Social Problems Manhattan Project “Metallurgical Laboratory” University of Chicago, June 11, 1945 (The Franck Report)
Members of the Committee:
James Franck (Chairman)
Donald J. Hughes
J. J. Nickson
Glenn T. Seaborg
J. C. Stearns
Source: U.S. National Archives, Washington D.C.: Record Group 77, Manhattan Engineer District Records, Harrison-Bundy File, folder #76.
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The development of nuclear power not only constitutes an important addition to the technological and military power of the United States, but also creates grave political and economic problems for the future of this country.
Nuclear bombs cannot possibly remain a “secret weapon” at the exclusive disposal of this country, for more than a few years. The scientific facts on which their construction is based are well known to scientists of other countries. Unless an effective international control of nuclear explosives is instituted, a race of nuclear armaments is certain to ensue following the first revelation of our possession of nuclear weapons to the world. Within ten years other countries may have nuclear bombs, each of which, weighing less than a ton, could destroy an urban area of more than five square miles. In the war to which such an armaments race is likely to lead, the United States, with its agglomeration of population and industry in comparatively few metropolitan districts, will be at a disadvantage compared to the nations whose population and industry are scattered over large areas.
We believe that these considerations make the use of nuclear bombs for an early, unannounced attack against Japan inadvisable. If the United States would be the first to release this new means of indiscriminate destruction upon mankind, she would sacrifice public support throughout the world, precipitate the race of armaments, and prejudice the possibility of reaching an international agreement on the future control of such weapons.”
The loss of prestige and suffering international condemnation were seen as real threats to the security and international standing of the United States by significant members of the US nuclear elite in 1945. The weapons were used within the context of the warning provided by the Franck Report. The negative international outcomes warned of were dealt with with an information control regime which claimed that all casualties resulting from the nuclear attacks were the result of the huge blast radius of the weapons, rendering, it was claimed, the radiological effects irrelevant. General Groves mounted a sophisticated propaganda regime to this effect which in effect lasted decades, well into the 1970s. The methods of information suppression and secrecy became enshrined in post war nuclear legislation, The Atomic Energy Act, which remains in force today and which prohibits public discussion of any deemed topic relevant to nuclear authorities. The sources of these statements include:
Hiroshima Cover-up: How the War Department’s Timesman Won a Pulitzer
by Amy Goodman and David Goodman, http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0810-01.htm
Despite the foresight demonstrated at the Trinity test, on 12 September 1945,
the New York Times published a story claiming that the reports of illness
among Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of their cities were false.
The reporter, Laurence, wrote: “the Japanese described ‘symptoms’ that did
not ring true.” Groves was quoted as saying: “The Japanese claim that people
died from radiation. If this is true, the number was very small.” (Laurence, W. L., New York Times, 12 September 1945, as related by Amy Goodman and David Goodman in “Hiroshima Cover-up: How the War
Department’s Timesman Won a Pulitzer” at Commondreams.org News Centre)
In response to similar press reports, Dr Robert Stone, head of the
Metallurgical Division’s Health Program wrote the following to Colonel H.L.
Friedell, U.S. Engineer Corps, Manhattan District, on 9 August 1945: “I could
hardly believe my eyes when I saw a series of news releases said to be
quoting Oppenheimer, and giving the impression that there is no radioactive
hazard. Apparently all things are relative.” (Source: US Department of Energy Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project, Advisory Committee on Human Radiation
Experiments (ACHRE) : Introduction The Aftermath of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki: The Emergence of the Cold War Radiation Research Bureaucracy”
(ACHRE No. DOE-121494-D-1).
Contrary to the propaganda also, the Trinity Test of the first plutonium bomb in New Mexico in July 1945 was not harmless:
A Top Secret Memo dated 21 July 1945 by Shields Warren to Groves details
radioactive contamination of people, animals and land by fallout from the 16
July 1945 explosion. Warren expressed his opinion that the test site was too
small. Fallout dust was detected 200 miles from Trinity. Warren
recommended any future test site be sited within a 150 mile radius devoid of
any population. The weapon effect most like the gas chemical warfare of
World War 1, nuclear fallout, was proving, like its early ‘counterpart’, to be
very inaccurate; it could not be contained to the confines of small, defined
military targets. It was indiscriminate and the fission products are deadly
chemicals in such circumstances.
(Source: Memo, From Colonel Stafford L. Warren Chief of Medical Section
Manhattan District To: Major Gen. Groves, SUBJECT: Report on Test II at
Trinity, 16 July 1945, U.S. National Archives, Record Group 77, Records of
the Office of the Chief of Engineers, Manhattan Engineer District, TS
Manhattan Project Files, folder 4, “Trinity Test.” 21 July 1945. Available at:
Leo Szilard Online, in honor of Dr Szilard.)
In fact, the dangers of fission product fallout had been foreseen very early. The August 1939 letter from Albert Einstein to President Roosevelt warning of the dangers of atomic weapons deliberately invoked the recent US experience of the harms of radioactive materials in its explanation: “In the course of the last four months it has been made probable through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in America–that it may be possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and large quantities of new radium-like elements would be generated. Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future.”…”This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable–though much less certain–that extremely powerful bombs of this type may thus be constructed. A single bomb of this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory.”..”The United States has only very poor ores of uranium in moderate quantities. There is some good ore in Canada and former Czechoslovakia, while the most important source of uranium is in the Belgian Congo.” Source: Einstein’s Letter to President Roosevelt – 1939 http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Begin/Einstein.shtml Not only would the atomic bomb produce a massive blast, but it would generate large amounts of radioactive material. If the target was a port, not only the target but surrounding territory would be destroyed and afflicted by the multiple effects of the weapon.
The biological effects of radioactive material taken into the body was not unknown to military science. As we have seen, the military was the major customer of the radium painting industry and was well aware by at least 1925 of the harmful effects of ingested radio-emitters. Further, the E.O. Lawarence Crocker Radiation Laboratory at the University of Berkeley, California, had been both manufacturing by cyclotron radio iodine 131 for use in human thyroid disease since the 1930s. Dr. Joseph Hamilton had originated this work. Seaborg had manufactured the substance for Hamilton, who had achieved good results in extending life in otherwise hopeless cases of thyroid disease. Dr John Lawrence at the same facility, had used Radio Phosphorous, a neutron activation product, with some success in extending life in cases of adult leukemia. Dr Charles Pecher, of the same facility, had been producing Strontium 89 by cyclotron and had conducted animal metabolic and radiological studies with the substance since 1939 and had used the substance to shrink bone tumors in consenting human patients who were at the end stage of disease and in pain which was intense and untreatable by any other means.
That these substances were identified as fission products, produced by both bombs and reactors were realised early by the United States military and by the civilian precusor organisation to the Manhattan Project. (The Uranium Committee, set up by Roosevelt in response to Einstein’s letter of 1939. The committee was secretly funded and went through various name changes, including S1 and reorganisation within the NRDC.) Ernest Lawrence was a member of the committee. As operator of the Crocker Radiation Laboratory, and administrative head of scientists such as Seaborg, Hamilton, Pecher, Stone, and others, was able to report to the Committee in 1942 that 1. a reactor pile to produce plutonium which ran on pure natural isotopic (unenriched) uranium, and that if the atomic bomb did not eventuate in time, then the reactor could be used to produce large quantities of “violently radioactive” substances (such as strontium 89, iodine 131 and cesium 131 – all substances which had been identified by that stage as being fission products by Lawrence and his team, who had, by this stage, also separated plutonium (Seaborg and McMillan). And that the violently radioactive substances could be mixed with conventional explosive, and dropped upon enemy territory in order to contaminate water and food supplies.
Yet the myth persisted for decades that the radiological effects of fission products were baseless fears. Even today the substances retain military weapon potential as radiological weapons.
Souces for the above:
Pecher, C., “Biological Investigations with Radioactive Calcium and Strontium, Preliminary Report on the Use of Radioactive Strontium in the Treatment of Metastatic Bone Cancer”, Contributed from the Radiation Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley University of California Publications in Pharmacology. Editor: C. D. Leake, G.A. Alles, T.C. Daniels,
M.H. Soley. Volume 2 No 11, pp. 117-150, plates 6-9, 3 figures in text. Submitted by Editors July 21, 1942, Issued October 23, 1942, University of California Press, Berkeley, Cambridge University Press, London, England. Prefatory note by C.D. Leake, editor.)
Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, “Final Report”, Chapter 5, “The Manhattan Experiments, section “The California Experiments”, “Hamilton and his colleagues had pioneered in using radioisotopes to treat cancer, in particular iodine 131 in the 1930s. At the time the United States entered the war, they were investigating another isotope for cancer therapy, strontium 89. Indeed, it was this area of Hamilton’s expertise that attracted the interest of the Manhattan Project. While Stone moved to the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory during the war, Hamilton remained at the University of California’s Radiation Laboratory, or “Rad Lab,” at Berkeley.”
Erf, L.A., Pecher, C.,Proc. “Secretion of Radio-Strontium in Milk of Two Cows Following Intravenous Administration”, Soc. Exp Biol. & Med. Vol 45, Oct-Dec 1940, 11825P, pp. 762-764.
Lawrence, J., Ann Intern Med 1941, 15: 487 and Erf, L.A., AnlM, 15:487, 1941, as cited by Brucer.
“An Introduction to Cancer Therapy With Hadron Radiation”, Andrew M. Sessler Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 May, 2008: “J.S. Stone and John Lawrence (both MDs) used neutrons for therapy in patients, starting in late 1938, with a major program (250 patients) starting
in 1940. Quoting Stone: “Distressing late effects” and “Neutrontherapy…should not be continued”No further neutron work for 25 years…”
AnlM, 15:487, 1941, as cited by Brucer.
Brucer, Marshall, “A Chronology of Nuclear Medicine, 1600 – 1989”, 1990, Heritage Publications, St. Louis, Missouri, ISBN 0-9625674-0-X, `pp 258 –
ibid pp 259.
“Evaluation of Radioactive Fallout” , Armed Forces Special Weapons Weapons Project, Washington DC. 1955. AFSWP-978 (Extracted). Prepared for Defence Nuclear Agency, Washington, DC 20305, 15 May 1981 HRE-0808, discussion of neutron induced radioactivity on ground. pp 10, 11.
“Australian Participants in British Nuclear Tests in Australia, Vol. 1, Dosimetry”, May 2006. Michael Carter, Francis (Rob) Robotham, Keith Wise, Geoffrey Williams and Philip Crouch. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia 2006 ISBN 1920720 383 Department of Veterans Affairs, Canberra. pp 24 “3.3.3 Delayed Exposure Sources, Activation Products result from neutrons produced in the explosion, being absorbed by stable non radioactive atoms….which then become radioactive.”
Shimizu, S., “Historical Sketch of the Scientific Field Survey in Hiroshima Several Days after the Bombing”, published by the Bulletin of the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto, University, Volume 60, (2), 1982, pp 47.
Brucer, Marshall, “A Chronology of Nuclear Medicine, 1600 – 1989”, 1990, Heritage Publications, St. Louis, Missouri, ISBN 0-9625674-0-X, pp 263.
ibid, pp 263.
Lawrence, J., Obituary to Charles Pecher, “Science”, Vol 94, No. 2449, 5 Dec 1941, pp. 53. Brucer gives 1939 as the date Charles Pecher arrived at the Crocker Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley.
Brucer, pp. 222.
“Cyclotron for Cancer”, Time magazine, 28 Nov. 1938)
Erf, L.A., Pecher, C.,Proc. “Secretion of Radio-Strontium in Milk of Two Cows Following Intravenous Administration”, Soc. Exp Biol. & Med. Vol 45, Oct-Dec 1940, 11825P, pp. 762-764.
Note: The energy level of the Beta emissions from Sr89 is given in this text as “750,000 electron volts”. This is in error. Pecher gives the correct value as : “1.5 million electron volt beta-particles” in the text of “Biological Investigations with Radioactive Calcium and Strontium”, pp. 86, which was published as paper 11899, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. Vol. 46, Jan-April 1941.
G. N. Glasoe (Columbia University, New York, New York), J. Steigman (College of the City of New York, New York, New York Pupin Physics Laboratories, Columbia University), “Radioactive Products from Gases Produced in Uranium Fission”, Phys. Rev. Vol. 58, Issue 1, 1 -6 (1 July 1940, paper submitted 13 May 1940) (APS PROLA). pp 4 & 5. The authors describe a 51 day half life and denote the isolated Strontium radioisotope as Strontium 89 citing the earlier work of Stewart, (Physics Review 56, 629 (1939) and Dubridge and Marshall, (Physics Review 56, 706 (1939); 57, 348, (1939).
The US ADTSR “Toxicological Profile of Strontium” gives the energy of beta radiation emitted by Sr89 as 1.495 Million electron Volts (MeV). The half life of Sr89 is given as 51 days by this authority. (ADTSR, Toxicological Profile of Strontium, Chapter 4, CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, and RADIOLOGICAL INFORMATION, Table 4-3 Percent Natural Occurrence and Radioactive Properties of Isotopes of Strontium, pp 196. ADTSR supplied pdf document TP159-c4.)
“Historical Timeline, Important Moments in the History of Nuclear Medicine”, Society of Nuclear Medicine Resource Centre.
Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Final Report, pp. 518, 1995, US Government. See also Staff Memorandum, ACHRE 28/6/94, Historical Background, “Rad Warfare & Human Experiments”, Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, U.S. Department of Energy.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR STRONTIUM
4. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND RADIOLOGICAL INFORMATION Table 4-3. Percent Natural Occurrence and Radioactive Properties of Isotopes of Strontium, pp 196 TP159-c4.pdf http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp159.html
Greene Shepherd, “Types of Radiation: Basic Theory explained for thenonphysicist”, Chapter 13, pp 138, “Medical Response to Terrorism:Preparedness and Clinical Practice”By Daniel C. Keyes, Jonathan L. Burstein, Richard B Schwartz, Raymond ESwienton Edition: 2, illustrated. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,2004. ISBN 0781749867, 9780781749862
Moss, W., Eckhardt, R., “The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments”,Los Alamos Science, Number 23, 1995, pp. 179.
Oral History of Dr. Patricia Wallace Durbin, Ph.D. Conducted November11, 1994. United States Department of Energy Office of Human RadiationExperiments July 1995, HUMAN RADIATION STUDIES: REMEMBERINGTHE EARLY YEARS.
Scott, K.G., Hughes, Sally Smith, “ Radioisotope Research in medicine:oral history transcript/ 1979 (c1986), Berkley, Calif. : University of California.1986. Bancroft Library, History of Science and Technology Program.
DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project ACHRE Report Chapter 5, “Experiments With Plutonium, Uranium, and Polonium”, The California Experiments, footnote 75. http://www.hss.energy.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap5_fn.html#f n100
Hamilton, J.G., “Metabolism of Fission Products, Progress Report for Period Ending April 15, 1944”, declassified 1947, re-issued by US Atomic Energy Commission, MDDC -1001, Argonne National Laboratory, Conclusions, pp 26.
DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project ACHRE Report Chapter 6: General Benefits of Radioisotope Research Footnote 96. https://hss.doe.gov/HealthSafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap6_5.html
GE Healthcare, Canada, http://www.gehealthcare.com/caen/md/metastron.html ]
DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project ACHRE Report Chapter 6, “The AEC Program of Radioisotope Distribution”, General Benefits of Radioisotope Research, sentence number
Soc. Nuc. Med. Resource Center, About Nuclear Medicine, Historical Timeline Important Moments in the History of Nuclear Medicine ie start of tracer diagnostics.
ACHRE Final Report, Chapter 5, footnote 75, footnote 76 giving one Manhattan Engineer District Contract awarded to Hamilton as Number as W-7405-eng-48-A
For example, Hamilton, J. G., Metabolism of Fission Products Progress Report for Period Ending April 15, 1944. Technical Information Division, Oak Ridge Operations, AEC, Oak Ridge. Wider reporting by Hamilton within the Metallurgical Project is shown for example by the document “Metallurgical Project, A.H. Compton, Project Leader, Health, Radiation and Protection, R.S. Stone, M.D., Division Director, Health Division Program, May 10, 1943”, document numbers 717325, Report CH-632 55-A, Table of Contents, item V. Metabolism of Fission Products – J.G. Hamilton, I. L. Chaikoff, D. Greenberg.
““..research by Glenn T. Seaborg
revealed that an isotope of neptunium decayed to yet
another transuranium (man-made heavier then
uranium) element. In February 1941, Seaborg
identified this as element 94, which he later named
plutonium. By May, he had proven that plutonium-239
was 1.7 times more likely than uranium-235 to fission.
This finding made the Fermi- Szilard experiment more
important than ever, as it suggested the possibility of
producing large amounts of the fissionable plutonium
in a uranium pile using plentiful uranium-238, and
then separating it chemically. Surely this would be
less expensive and simpler than building isotopeseparation
plants. A second, perhaps easier, path to
the atomic bomb now seemed possible.” : Glen T. Seaborg
Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, USA. Discovery and Isolation of Plutonium
Feb – May 1941 “Piles and Plutonium, 1939-1941” “The Manhattan Project An Interactive History”
US Department of Energy Office of History and Heritage Resources.
National Academy of Sciences USA Report and Memo gives the option of the development of a dispersal weapon for
those fission productswhich are “violently radioactive”. May, 1941 ACHRE FR 1994, Ch.11 Weapon application of fission product knowledge based on an expectation of harmful effects upon the enemy. National Academy of Sciences Report of 17 May 1941 predicts such fission products could be ready for use by 1943.
Hamilton to Stone, Groves and Oppenheimer Memos: use of radio strontium as a weapon. USA. 1943. ACHRE Final
Report Chapter 11. United States Department of Energy.
The historic and scientific record shows that P32, Sr89, I131 and neutron radiation were synthesized and generated by the Lawrence Berkeley cyclotron prior to the discovery that these modes of radiation delivery were
also generated by the process of nuclear fission. Prior to the US entry into World War 2, these modes of radiation delivery – internal emitters and external radiation – had been used in nuclear medicine in prescribed and described doses to people in the course of treatments.
In the light of the foregoing, it is patently false to describe the emissions from fission technology – whether bombs or reactors – as substances of benefit to the general population. By the same token it would be a crime against humanity to deliberately with hold from nuclear medicine a substance found to be of immense palliative care value – the easing of the pain of the terminally ill for the period 1942 to 1993. This however is precisely what occurred in the case of Strontium 89 and the work of Dr Charles Pecher.
While the Atomic Energy Commission was forced to admit some things following the 1954 Castle Bravo H bomb disaster of the Marshall Islands, what was admitted was the weakest strontium fission product – Sr90. As bad as that is, the dose from Sr89 was more immediately significant, Sr89 being 28,900 times more radioactive weight for weight than radium.
It was not until the end of Project Sunshine – the global nuclear fallout human bone strontium uptake survey – that the Sr89 cancer pain reduction treatment was approved for use by the US FDA.
A delay in a valuable treatment in order to keep the radiological of the substance – 4 times more abundant as a fallout product than strontium 90 – from the medical books, and from the pharmacology shelves.
Only dose from Strontium 90 was ever acknowledged as the fallout hazard from the atomic test era.
There is a plain source which confirms the secrecy which descended upon strontium 89 as it was plainly suppressed from the open medical literature, the original Pecher papers yellowing with age in university archives. It is the very famous “Dear Chuck Letter” by Dr Hamilton: The April 6 1954 Letter to Dr
L. Dunham from Dr Joseph Hamilton re the secrecy surrounding the medical use of strontium 89 at the University of California Hospital. ““Dear Chuck: Please find enclosed the available data from the University of
California Hospital which was compiled by members of Stone’s staff who
incidentally are quite unaware of the classified nature of this material. I
discussed this matter with Dr. Stone and told him that it should not be
discussed with anyone in the Division of Radiology with the exception of the
two of us.” …” The picture is not too clear since a number of patients
received stable strontium and several others received some amounts of
radio-strontium.” “Our own experimental program is progressing very nicely
using both rats and monkeys.”
“The use of radioactive strontium, (Sr89) in the treatment of patients…the
rationale, based on experimental animal studies with metastatic carcinoma
to bone and in osteogenic sarcoma was initiated in 1940 by Charles
Pecher….Pecher’s experimental findings were confirmed by Treadwell (Mrs.
Anne de G. Low-Beer) , et al, who investigated uptake of radio-strontium
by bone tumours in six patients prior to biopsy or amputation.” Secret.”
Source: DOE Opennet Document as follows: Title: Title: LETTER TO C L DUNHAM, SUBJECT: RADIO-STRONTIUM Author(s): HAMILTON,J.G. (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA) Document Location: Location – NNSA/NSO Nuclear Testing Archive Address – P.O. Box 98521 City – Las Vegas State – NV Zip – 89193-8521 Phone – (702)794-5106 Fax – (702)794-5107 Email – CIC@NV.DOE.GOV Document Type: CORRESPONDENCE, LETTERS, MEMOS Publication Date: 1954 Apr 06 Declassification Status: Declassified
Document Pages: 0007 Accession Number: NV0721135 Originating Research Org.: Unknown
OpenNet Entry Date:2007 May 18
It can be seen that the gagging of doctors by nuclear authorities goes back a very long way.
The experimental Sr89 use continued on a secret basis into the 1950s, however, the treatment was not permitted into general medicine until 1993. Pecher had been successfully easing pain of the terminally ill in 1941. The characteristics of the substance was suppressed for the entirety of the nuclear test era. The delay in the use of the treatment may have been even longer had it not been for the 1974 independent rediscovery of the treatment by the German Doctor Firusian. Pecher’s tragic suicide in August 1941 had profoundly negative effects on the history of medicine and upon honesty in nuclear reporting in my opinion. He was spared the choice of Sr89 for medicine or Sr89 as a fallout product though. Hamilton had no such qualms.
We can see a very great deal more than was admitted was known about the nature and hazards of fallout by the Manhattan Project. It was no fluke that the staff who had worked with those substances which turned out to be fission products per war ended in positions of key authority within the medical division of the Manhattan Project. Stone, Hamilton, and others. The human database on the dosimetry and human effects of I131, P32, Sr89 and neutron rays, by virtue of the Lawrence Lab’s cyclotron production and medical use of these substances was of immense military interest once the substances were found to be fission products at various dates between 1939 and 1942. That is, not only could they be cyclotron produced, they were created in vast quantities by uranium and plutonium fission. The Lawrence medical data base could easily be used by the military, and indeed that was in large part what Hamilton’s Metabolism of the Fission Products contract was in large part about. For the Medical division had a brief far wider than that of protecting Manhattan Project workers. It was also given the brief to define the military usefulness of radiation against the enemy. Far from being in the ignorance of radiological effects so often professed by nuclear authorities in apology for the events of 1945, the Uranium Committee by 1941, via Lawrence, was in possession of a radiological database of human effects of key substances which had been researched, by benefit of cyclotron production, since the 1930s. The USA had at least a five year lead over the Axis nations in terms of the human effects of nuclear fallout. This additional scope to in effect weaponize – work out the military dose – for the identified substances is shown by the following document: “Metallurgical Project, A.H. Compton, Project Leader, Health, Radiation
and Protection, R.S. Stone, M.D., Division Director, Health Division Program,
May 10, 1943”, document numbers 717325, Report CH-632 55-A, pp. 2.
The Scope under which the Metallurgical Project’s Health Division operated, and under which Hamilton was therefore contracted to conduct research, included the “Scope” as follows:
“4. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Radioactive Materials as a Military Weapon.
A) Defense – Tolerance of and protection of troops and civilians.
B) Offence – Radiations needed to be effective.” End Quote. Source: Ibid.
The military do not tend to sit around for 5 to 30 years waiting for the enemy to die of radiogenic cancer. To be effective, the effect had to be pretty quick. At Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the military effects of the radiation released met the criteria. But as we have seen, the USA for a period denied any effects from radiation were inflicted upon the target Japanese people. As the decades passed, the long tern, non military but still very real, longer term effects were slowly admitted.
The suppression of medical data by nuclear authorities in relation to Japan is a complex story which I will continue after I have had some sleep.
Honestly, some readers who complain about lack of referencing in blogs really do need to get off their bums and do some research for themselves.
You will quickly find that the whole idea that plutonium is safe to eat is an insane lie, and that radio cesium is not a nutrient. Bananas do not justify radio cesium or radio strontium in food.
Evacuate Fukushima. In terms of a healthy population at peace, the “radiations needed to effective” is zero. Unless the Japanese people are in fact the enemy of the Diet. Time for the Diet to disengage from the nuclear cartel that so far has run the show since March 2011.
Such was the progress in the identification of the hazards of the fission products that Mark Oliphant (later, Sir Mark) wrote: “In 1943, when the first reasonable large-scale fission yields were examined by us in Berkeley, (Seaborg and MacMillan), and it was clear that fission products would be a very great hazard if we ever succeeded in obtaining chain reactions of military significance, the report was labeled with the reddest of classifications. I was so horrified by the biological conclusions (radiation hazard) of John Lawrence
and Dr Stone…” (Source: Mark Oliphant (later Sir), writing to Hedley Marston, 12.9.56 (AAS –
Marston; 21), cited by Dr Roger Cross , “Fallout – Hedley Marston and the British Bomb Tests in Australia, R. Cross, Wakefield Press Copyright Roger Cross, 2001, ISBN 1 86254 523 5.) Sir Mark probably would not consider cesium 137 or plutonium (any isotope) to be all that desirable as condiments on any meal table. Contrary to the opinion of some proclaimed high flying academics in Japan in the pay of the nuclear industry who urge the consumption of these substances on the totally false premise that they are “like vitamins” (Sykes, Flinders University, July 2011,)
There are two resources which come from Japan that confirm the suppression of medical and medically relevant information lay at the heart of the official response and presentation of the atomic bombings of that country.
The first is The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum which maintains a web based virtual museum. This is located at:
From this page various selecting “”It was an atomic bomb.”- A History of A-bomb Investigations” at http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/exhibit_e/exh0307_e/exhi_top_e.html reveals information about the various surveys of Hiroshima by Japanese scientists prior to the Allied Occupation. The Museum confirms that the USA confiscated much of the material, evidence and written records of these 1945 Japanese surveys and imposed a censorship regime which the Japanese authorities of Occupied Japan were in agreement with.
The results of these surveys were documented in detail. Soil samples and other evidence were carefully studied and catalogued.
Elements of the Manhattan Engineering District under US Army General Farrell – The Manhattan District Survey Team – reached Hiroshima on the 8th of September 1945. From this time onward, the previously autonomous Japanese technical responses to the atomic bombings became increasingly US led with the Japanese contribution under US command.
The US began confiscating the evidence and reports gathered and created by the Japanese scientists in mid September 1945. For example, on the 11th of September 1945 the Kyoto University team handed over the results of their 37 autopsies of bomb victims to General Farrell.
The confiscated material removed to the United States included human body parts and the remains of a famous Japanese actress who had suffered no burn, blast or impact shrapnel injuries. Midori Naka had died of “A-Bomb Disease”.
http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/exhibit_e/exh0307_e/exh03075_e.html (See also The 34 page paper “The Repatriation of Atomic Bomb Victim Body Parts to Japan: Natural Objects and Diplomacy”, by M. Susan Lindee, was published in Osiris, 2nd Series, Vol. 13, “Beyond Joseph Needham: Science, Technology, and Medicine in East and South East Asia” (1998), pp. 376-409. The paper was published by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the History of Science Society. )
As we recall at the same time as the human remains were being taken back to the USA from Japan, the Manhattan Project’s reporter, Laurence, wrote: “the Japanese described ‘symptoms’ that didnot ring true.” Groves was quoted as saying: “The Japanese claim that people died from radiation. If this is true, the number was very small.” (Laurence, W. L., New York Times, 12 September 1945, as related by Amy Goodman and David Goodman in “Hiroshima Cover-up: How the WarDepartment’s Timesman Won a Pulitzer” at Commondreams.org News Centre).
Regardless of what the US nuclear authorities were telling the world to the contrary, the medical staff and leadership would have been most interested to receive the body of Midori Naka.
The example Midori Naka is a fundamental and very blatant example of the use of medical suppression and deception by nuclear authorities to deny the reality of the consequences of their actions.
To quote the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum at the above link: “Midori Naka was an actress with the Sakura Troupe (director – Sadao Maruyama), a traveling theater troupe created about the time of the atomic bombing to raise morale at military facilities. The Sakura Troupe lived in a dormitory/office complex in Horikawa-cho (750 m from the hypocenter). Midori was there when the bomb exploded. She was trapped under the fallen building, but suffered neither burns nor serious injury. She managed to dig herself out and run to Kyobashigawa River to escape the fire. There she got into the water and was later rescued by the Akatsuki Corps and taken to a temporary relief station in Ujina. She crawled out of her dormitory wearing only underwear, and by the time she arrived at the bank of Kyobashigawa River, she was feeling intense pain in her chest. She was vomiting violently, and there was blood in the vomit. Later, blood was found in her stools, and her urine was black, a classic symptom of radiation poisoning.
Her physical problems failed to subside. Filled with anxiety, she left the relief station without permission on the 8th wrapped only in a sheet. She took a train from Hiroshima Station and arrived at her family home in Tokyo late the night of the 9th.
Somehow she managed to make it that far, but she was extremely ill and lacked any appetite. She was admitted to the Tsuzuki Surgical Ward of Tokyo Imperial University Hospital on the 16th.
The initial evaluation was “abrasions over the entire body,” but her white blood cell count fell rapidly. She had a high fever, lost her hair, and her wounds continued to ooze pus. Her condition continued to worsen.
She received the best treatment possible at that time, but died on August 24. The cause of death stated on her chart was, for the first time in history, “A-bomb disease.” end quote.
According to thr United States nuclear officials at the time, this story of Midori’s death was “enemy propaganda. But the US nuclear authorities had the body of Midori held at Oak Ridge and the US did indeed know the truth. In complete contradiction to its public statements. I repeat, it is a clear case of nuclear authorities suppressing the evidence, as is their normal modus operandi.
The Museum at the above link shows a photograph of the little glass preserving jars the remains of Midori Naka were eventually returned to Japan in by the USA. The Museum states “Midori Naka specimens
Collection of Hiroshima University Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine
The material returned from the US to Japan in 1972 included these specimens from Midori Naka, who was autopsied at Tokyo Imperial University. Much of the material about the atomic bomb had been confiscated by the US.”
The USA sat on the truth from 1945 until 1972. In the interim it denied anyone died of radiation effects alone, emphasizing the blast, and discounting entirely the fact that radiation alone killed people.
Still, the USA in this instance was much quicker at disclosure than the British during that nation’s infamous nuclear weapons test period.
On May 1973, the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs held a ceremony for the return of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb records confiscated by the U.S. during Occupation (1945-52). (Source: Atomic Bomb Museum – “The Pursuit of Peace”. http://www.atomicbombmuseum.org/5_timetable.shtml
In 2003 Yoko Fujikawa, Kiyoshi Shizuma and Satoru Endo, of the Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, reported their study of samples of previously returned 1945 Hiroshima soil. Their paper, entitled “Investigation of the Fate of U-235 from the Hiroshima A Bomb”, is available at: http://irpa11.irpa.net/pdfs/7c4.pdf
On 9 August 1945 Yoshio Nishina and his companions from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research collected soil samples in Hiroshima. These samples were used in the 2003 study. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum account of the collection of the soil samples is given at:
The validation of the experiences of atomic bomb survivors has been delayed by the confiscation and late return of evidence of important significance. This technique has been used since 1925 by nuclear authorities, from the radium authorities to the official responses to current nuclear events. I will later show that the medical records of British and Australian nuclear veterans and afflicted civilians have been suppressed by British and Australian authorities. The suppression is so old current officials are possibly in ignorance of it.
(This post is obviously a long and complex one given the length of time over which nuclear authorities have lied to the people of the world. It is time they stopped. Their actions are counter productive.)
Using the resources and information held by the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, it is possible to tabulate the entire Japanese and Occupation survey activities of cities destroyed by Allied atomic bombs. I have done this and the reference for the following tables is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum Virtual Display. (I assure the reader that I am proceeding with all haste toward 2012. To establish the proof of matter, I have started with the radium dial painting industry, am present proceeding through the 1940s, and will shortly hit the 1950s will all the references I can muster for those who falsely claim my presentation of the central nuclear deception, the suppression of medical evidence, remains a key technique of nuclear authorities in 2012, hamstrung as I am by the fact that this is a blog, not a thesis.)
A TABULATION OF SURVEYS OF HIROSHIMA BASED UPON THE SOURCE MATERIAL PRESENTED BY THE HIROSHIMA PEACE MEMORIAL MUSEUM VIRTUAL DISPLAY DATED 25.07.03
For many decades the USA maintained that no significant nuclear fallout occurred in Japan as a result of the 1945 atomic bombings.
The Japanese scientists who surveyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki used Geiger Mueller detectors, cosmic ray detectors and Lauritsen electroscopes to survey the cities for radioactive debris from the bombs. Of these, the Laurisen electroscope offered, in my opinion, the best sensitivity to alpha. The type of windowless Geiger instrument described by Prof Shimizu as used in his surveys of Hiroshima, comprised of a hardened aluminum, windowless, geiger tube seems totally inadequate as a alpha detector. The Professor reported significant beta findings, largely related to radio phosphorous (P32) formed in bone due to the passage of neutron rays from the bombs through the horse bone he collected at Hiroshima and studied at his Kyoto University Lab. Mysteriously, given the limitations of the instrument he describes as being used, Shimizu reports “no acceptable alpha radiation was detected” in any of his samples. Source: “Historical Sketch of the
Scientific Field Survey in Hiroshima Several Days after the Bombing” by Prof Sakae Shimizu, 1982, published by Bulletin of the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Volume 60, (2), 1982.
Other Japanese sources report findings to the contrary. None the less all of Shimizu’s written survey records and samples were confiscated by General Farrell’s troops, taken to the USA and have never been returned to Japan.
On the other hand various US government documents reveal in great detail the portable radiation detection equipment available to US Occupation troops who entered the cities destroyed by atomic bombs in 1945. One such document is DNA-TR-84-338 RADIAC INSTRUMENTS AND FILM BADGES USED AT ATMOSPHERIC NUCLEAR TESTS” authored by JAYCOR 205
S. Whiting Street, Alexandria, VA 2230403687 26 September 1985, Technical Report CONTRACT No. DNA 001-83-C-0069 THIS WORK WAS SPONSORED BY THE DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY UNDER RDT&E RMSS CODE 8350084466 U99QMXMK00097 H2590D. Prepared for Director DEFENSE NUCLEAR AGENCY Washington, DC 203051000” www.dtra.mil/documents/rd/DNATR84338.pdf
Portable alpha and gamma detectors available to the USA for use at Trinity in July 1945 and later are described in the DNA document as “SERIES: TRINITY (1945)
Radiac Instrument Ref. Accuracy Ref.
Portable alpha meters 2:95 10% of full scale 14D:22;14B;l4C Geiger Counter 1:55& +/- 25% (est) 2A
2:50 Portable gamma meters 2:95 +/- 25% (est) 2A
Rasterline-Angus Recording gamna meters 2:95 +/- 25% (est) 2A ”
The USA had the benefit of radiation detection instruments developed from 1942 by the Victoreen Company under contract from the Manhattan Project. The full range of instruments available to the USA from these early days can be viewed at the Oak Ridge Associated Universities’ online Museum at http://www.orau.org/ptp/museumlibrary.htm
It is beyond dispute that both Japan and the United States Occupation Forces had access to instruments capable of detecting alpha, beta, gamma and neutron radiation. Certainly gamma and beta emitting neutron activation products would have presented no technical challenge to the scientists from either nation in August – September 1945.
The mystery remains as why to why it was that the United States reported “no significant fallout” from the bombs in 1945 and why it maintained this stance for decades. Professor Shimizu may personally have had limited access to Lauritsen electroscopes, though I find this implausible given his primary work with uranium oxide in attempts of photo-fission by x ray stimulation. His lab held a very small quantity of uranium, about the amount needed to cover a postage stamp. None the less, possessing an alpha emitter requires a lab to possess alpha detector, and the most common early type of device with alpha sensitivity was the Lauritsen electroscope. Shimizu’s statements regarding the lack of alpha detected in Hiroshima during his multiple surveys are perplexing. They conflict with other reports and certainly, with the return of confiscated 1945 Hiroshima soil samples to Japan from the 1970s onward, Japanese researchers have confirmed the presence of alpha, beta and gamma emitters from bomb fallout in those samples. For example:
Cesium-137 in Placentae, Urine, Food and Rain in Hiroshima. Papers Health Physics. 22(3):251-256, March 1972. Takeshita, K.; Antoku, S.; Sunayashiki, T.; Tabuchi, A.
Health Phys. 1989 Dec;57(6):1013-6. Fallout in the hypocenter area of the Hiroshima atomic bomb.Shizuma K, Iwatani K, Hasai H, Hoshi M.Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Japan.
Health Phys. 1990 May;58 (5):591-6. Measurement of 239Pu in soil and plants in the Nishiyama District of Nagasaki. Okajima S, Shimasaki T, Kubo T.Atomic Disease Institute, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan.
J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 1991 Mar;32 Suppl:32-9.
Studies of radioactivity produced by the Hiroshima atomic bomb: 2. Measurements of fallout radioactivity.Hasai H, Hoshi M, Yokoro K.Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Japan.
137Cs Concentration in Soil Samples from an Early Survey of Hiroshima Atomic Bomb and Cumulative Dose Estimation from the Fallout. Papers
Health Physics. 71(3):340-346, September 1996.Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Oka, Takamitsu;Okano, Masaharu
Nippon Genshiryoku Kenkyujo JAERI,Conf(2003) Uranium isotope analyses of soilsamples collected from Nisshoen, Hiroshima-Implication on the fate of U-235discharged from the Hiroshima A-bomb Accession number;03A0757641 Author;FUJIKAWA Y(Kyoto Univ., Osaka, Jpn) SHIZUMA K(Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-hiroshima, Jpn) ENDO S(Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-hiroshima, Jpn) IKEDA E(Kyoto
Univ., Osaka, Jpn) FUKUI M(Kyoto Univ., Osaka, Jpn) Journal Title;Nippon Genshiryoku Kenkyujo JAERI,Conf Journal Code:L2150A ISSN: VOL.;NO.;PAGE.314-319(2003) Figure&Table&Reference;FIG.5, REF.8 Pub. Country;Japan Language;English
For many decades US and Australian veterans who saw service as occupation in radiation affected areas of Japan were denied any consideration by their governments. In the US the position changed in the 1980s
The situation regarding fallout in Japan and its affects on Australian occupation troops stationed in Hiroshima and Kure from 1946 remains unchanged.
The Australian Department of Veterans Affairs states:
“EXPOSURE TO RADIATION
15.21 The main body of Australian troops arrived in Japan on 21 February 1946, some six months after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. DVA’s long-standing position is that the level of radiation had fallen to acceptable levels by the time the Australian BCOF contingent arrived in Japan. This stance is based on advice from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and its predecessors.” (Source: Report of the Review of Veterans’ Entitlements, Chapter 15 British Commonwealth Occupation Forces In Japan” , Department of Veterans Affairs, Australia.
The view that the fission and fuel particles did not exist in Hiroshima persists within the Australian nuclear establishment. The DVA statement might well apply neutron activation products but certainly does not apply to the fission and fuel particles confirmed by Japanese scientists as being present in the nuclear shattered cities not only in 1945 but in 2012. See above references to the returned soil samples.
It is the plain and stated view of the Australian Atomic ExServicemen’s Association that denial by the Department of Veterans’ Affairs in Australia of the nuclear fallout in Hiroshima and Kure is based upon a deliberate ignorance of scientific evidence to contrary which has existed since 1945 and which has been suppressed. It is my view that this suppression on the part of the USA eased up with the return of confiscated documents and samples to Japan by the USA from the 1970s onward. Professor Shimizu’s 1945 survey reports and samples however remain confiscated and unavailable. His 1982 “Historical Sketch”, a formal recollection, is all we have of his work in August – September 1945. The orignal work lies uncatalogued in the Library of Congress. And as such would be impossible for an ordinary person to locate using the Library catalogue. Handy that.
That there was suppression of medically relevant data from 1945 to the present time in relation to atomic bombing of Japan is abundant and clear. Australia persists with a pre 1974 US view of “no fallout in Hitoshima”. Australian veterans have been denied justice on the basis of the central deception of suppression of medically relevant data held and suppressed since 1945. This is clearly shown in the official historical record, and is the normal modus operandi of nuclear authorities, and has been since 1925.
Despite the sophistication of the US radiation detection equipment available to staff of the Manhattan Project, including General Farrell’s US occupation forces under direct from General Groves, the testimony of the first US serviceman to enter Nagasaki reveals that the best equipment was not deemed worthy of use in this instance.
The Oral History of Dr Nello Pace, conducted Conducted August 16, 1994, United States Department of Energy
Office of Human Radiation Experiments, June 1995. http://www.hss.doe.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/histories/0476/0476toc.html
Quote: “Conducting the First Radiation Survey at Nagasaki After the Bomb MacArthur was so provoked that he said, “I want my people, my doctors, in there looking at the effects of this, not these Manhattan District people!” Of course, the Navy had Ross McIntyre, who was the Surgeon General. He wasn’t quite as frontal about the whole thing; he was a little more subtle. He said, “Geez, we’ve got to find out something about what happened to those people and how much radiation there is.”
The Navy had something called the Naval Technical Mission to Japan, which was really an intelligence-gathering outfit, which went in quickly to find out all they could about Japanese optics and other technical developments. I got called in and McIntyre said, “We want you to take a small group over to Nagasaki and Hiroshima to see what went on and how much radiation there is.”
[In that small group there] was another fellow, named Shields Warren; he was a commander in the Navy. At this time I was a lieutenant commander. Shields Warren [came from] up in Boston. He was a big expert on radiation effects in humans. They also got him to go on under this same aegis, but independent of our group. I got a physiologist Robert E. Smith, who was a lieutenant working in my lab in Bethesda. The rest of the group consisted of four hospital corpsmen, adept at doing blood-cell counts and that kind of thing.
We packed up our Geiger counter, and we had these incredible orders of 1A priority, which enabled us to fly in military aircraft, all the way, right to Tokyo. This was five weeks after the bomb had gone off. They had had some terrible typhoons in Japan and nobody had been able to get in, anyway. We still couldn’t get into Hiroshima, but Nagasaki they said would be okay.
The Marines were just about to land and occupy Kyushu, beginning in a place called Sasebo in southern Japan, fairly near Nagasaki. Aerial photos had been taken by the Air Corps, and there were some buildings left standing that they could use for headquarters that would fit what ever they call an Army group of the Marines. So, we went to Tokyo, and we had a hell of a time figuring out how to get from there to Sasebo, where the Marines ostensibly were.
We finally got a very nice marine colonel who sent a couple of his pilots in a DC-3,19 and they flew us down to Sasebo from Tokyo. We couldn’t land in Sasebo because what had happened was, the next-to-the-last day of the war, before the [Nagasaki] bomb went off, the Air Corps had gone in and bombed the place, and the Navy didn’t know it. So all the buildings they were going to use were all damaged and destroyed. So things were chaotic when we got there.
We landed in a little village called Omura, which was halfway between Nagasaki and Sasebo. A Marine met us there. From radio communication, they knew we were coming. They took us to Sasebo and the headquarters for the regiment where the colonel was. He said, “Boy, am I glad to see you guys. I understand you’ve got Geiger counters with you. Can you tell how much radioactivity there is?” I said, “We’re here to measure how much was left.” He said, “Wonderful! I’ve been worried about our troops entering Nagasaki without knowing what we were getting into. Maybe we could make a reconnaissance.” I said, “Fine.”
This is, so help me, a true story: The first American body part to enter Nagasaki was my right hand, which was holding the Geiger counter. I was leaning back and trying to read it. The colonel had to look over my shoulder, and the driver was next to me, leaning backward too. The Japanese by then had cleared paths through, but there were still a lot of corpses; it was a messy situation. We made a transit through the bomb-damaged area, and found the radiation was well within tolerable, safe limits.
Then that was it. The colonel said, “Fine.” So that’s when the Marines went into Nagasaki. We spent three or four months there making our radiological survey. I took some blood samples and then went and did the same thing in Hiroshima. Our data were some of the first data on a place that had been attacked with atom bombs. Highly classified stuff.
Censured by the Military for Underclassifying His Nagasaki Report
PACE: Another funny story. When I got back I wrote the reports, and I classified them Secret—which was as high as I was cleared for, and that was fine to me. So one day I got a phone call to go down and report to Ross McIntyre, the Surgeon General. I thought, “Maybe they’re going to give me a medal”; I was pretty proud of what we’d done. I go in there, and there’s McIntyre sitting there and another guy that looked familiar; I think he was introduced to me as General Groves.20
They were there with a big scowl on their faces. They wanted to know why I’d classified this report so low, when it should have been classified Top Secret. I said, “I wasn’t cleared for Top Secret. I had no idea.” They said, “You should have classified it as Top Secret.” This was a very serious thing. McIntyre said, “I want you to destroy any piece of paper that had anything to do with this, any of the data.” “And furthermore,” he said, “I want you to forget. I’m ordering you to forget what you wrote in this report.”
I didn’t make that up.
I said, “Yes, sir!” I went out with my tail between my legs, and I went and did as he asked. Now of course, everybody is screaming at me still, “Where are the original data for your report?” Because this turns out to be highly valuable data. Of course, [decades later,] people at Livermore had access to this, and they were reading my report that I hadn’t seen for twenty or thirty years. Finally they declassified it, and I got a copy.”
end quote. That is not how you survey a bombed city. Dr Pace has now passed away. When I spring my coil, I have a bone to pick with Nello. The confiscated Japanese survey data of August September 1945 provided fair finer results than Nello’s efforts of trying to read a GM tube based instrument dial while bouncy along in Jeep with his arm holding the probe waving around in the air. It would not pass muster where I worked, engaged on a daily basis detecting alpha emitters on every surface in the work area, including the floor, with a detected alpha detector. Such as possessed by the USA in 1945. But not used by the first US Serviceman to give the green light for the entry in Nagasaki. Gamma is not the only hazard. And that is all Pace could reliably measure. His ability to discriminate beta from gamma being compromised by his method, and his alpha detection capacity being zero with the instrument. Still, he was ordered to forget. Any admission of radiation in the bombed cities was beyond the limits according to the Groves agenda. Any reports radiological effects were to be seen as enemy propaganda, not the result of US or Allied monitoring. The findings of Pace fly in the face of the concern expressed in writing at the radiological state of the cities by senior medical staff present in Japan in 1945, incredulous, as we have seen earlier, at the press reports released under the authority of Groves by the New York Times, which claimed reports of radiation induced illness in the Japanese population were false and merely enemy propaganda. At the same time the body of the esteemed Japanese actress, Midori Naka, the first person in the world to be acknowledged as dying of “A-Bomb disease” and from no other cause was en route to the USA after being confiscated from the Tokyo hospital where her body had lain.
Many, many people suffered “A-bomb” disease. For decades the US put an optimistic gloss on the situation. For many decades the existence of internalised radio emitters as hazards in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was denied. No fallout in Japan being the official line.
An Account of the Official Manhattan District Party to Hiroshima and Nagasaki
General Groves would not have been pleased with McArthur’s ordering of Nello Pace into Nagasaki with a GM meter probe waving in the breeze from his jeep. Groves had more sophisticated plans for the men under the command of General Farrell, the only troops authorized to detect and report on the radiological status of the nuked cities.
Donald L. Collins was a Manhattan Project Health Physicist. His job was to monitor radioactivity. He states:
“I reported to General Nichols and received orders to take my emergency instruments and join the Atomic Bomb
Investigations Committee under Col Stafford Warren, Head of the Medical Division of the (Manhattan) District. We flew to Tinian where we saw the Enola Gay, which had delivered the first atomic bomb.
While enroute we received word that the war was over. We were addressed by General Farrell who told us more
specifically that our mission was to prove that there was no radioactivity from the bomb. In my typical attitude (I didn’t particularly consider myself military), I didn’t mind talking back to him. I said “Excuse me, General. I thought we were going to measure the radioactivity.” Well, that’s what we did. While we were sitting, waiting to get into Japan – we were scheduled to be there, but we weren’t quite there – we read in the Stars and Stripes the results of our findings!” (Source: Donld L. Collins, “Pictures from the Past: Journeys into Health Physics in the Manhattan District and other Deverse Places”, in Kathren and Ziemer (Eds.), Health Physics: A Backward Glance (Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1980)pp37-45, cited by Sue Rabbitt Roff
“Hotspots: The Legacy of Hiroshima and Nagasaki” Cassell, 1995, ISBN 0-304-33437-5).
Collins in fact traced fallout from the Nagasaki bomb 32 miles out to sea, and found land based radiation readings at 3 times normal background readings 6 weeks after the bomb. (Source: Rabbitt Roff, ibid. pp 23).
So one can see where TEPCO and SPEEDI get it from. It has all happened before, the methodology has not changed since 1925, when young radium dial painters continued to be ordered to lick their radium tained paint brushes with their lips in order to produce a fine tip on the brush so as make nice neat numerals on watches, compasses and altimeters.
The hazard of internal emitters has been long known and continually diminished by nuclear authorities. The more people who are limited to equating nuclear pollution and fallout with a CT scan external photon based exposure, the happier these authorities are. Indeed, in March 2012 TEPCO was at pains to point out that the three exploding reactors would exposures no more significant than a CT scan. Not that population consented to or needed even that. In fact as the record now shows, TEPCO were merely following the same routine as outlined above. Even the bodies of the dead animals in the Fukushima exclusion zone are off limits. It will be decades before any report is written on the status of those livestock and domestic pets which had to be abandoned, such was the nature and extent of the fallout close in.
There is one more issue to look at before leaving the world war 2 era deceptions. The use to which the US put the documents it confiscated from Japan and how it dealt with personnel involved in both the Japanese nuclear program and the separate biological and chemical weapons program known as Unit 731. As Australian troops helped defuse and dispose of tons of chemical weapons from Poison Gas island (Ōkunoshima) in 1946, the subject is of some interest in Australia. Australians know the US officers in command took documents relating to the human experimental use of mustard gas and Lewisite from Okunoshima to the USA prior to destroying the chemical weapons stocks and production facilities. It turns out the documents ended up at the radiological and chemical weapons proving ground named Dugway in the USA. The documents also ended up at the Pentagon and lay at the heart of the Post World War 2 US biological and chemical weapons program. Whereas material and documents of a similar nature generated by the German Nazis were forbidden from use by the Nuremberg Principles, no such constraints were applied to the material and documents produced by Japanese militaristic Fascist undertakings.
The details and sources are as follows:
The movement of Soviet forces into China threatened Japanese Biological and Chemical Weapons test facilities in China. Generally known as Unit 731, the Japanese terror weapon program was wide ranging, consisting of many facilities in Asia.
The formation of this bio-chem programme had its roots in Japan’s 1925 refusal to accept the Geneva Convention Ban on biological weapons. (Source: ”Factories of Death,” by Sheldon H. Harris (Rutledge, 1994) and ”Prisoners of the Japanese: POWS of World War II in the Pacific,” by Gavan Daws (William Morrow, 1994))
The Headquarters for the bio-chem programme in Japan was located in Hiroshima Prefecture. Its location, on Okunojima island, was top secret. It produced chemical weapons munitions. The island is located approximately 50 km from Hiroshima City.
Okunoshima Island is a 20 minute Ferry Ride from Takehara City. It is located in the Seto Inland Sea. It takes 1 1/2 hours on bus or train to travel from Hiroshima to Takehara City. In total, 6,616 tons of gas was produced on the island from 1929 until Japan’s defeat in 1945. The island was chosen for its distance from major cities and its secluded location. The army went as far as erasing the island from unclassified maps in 1938 to protect its location. (Source: http://apike.ca/japan_okunoshima.html -official Japan tourist guide).
“Medical Experiments” and the testing of these bio-chem weapons caused the deaths of both civilians and POWs in camps such as Unit 731. Japan also used these munitions against Chinese cities. The total death toll was very great and the programme was carried out with great cruelty.
The United States responded to these inhumane outrages. On June 5, 1942, President Roosevelt issued a warning to Japan to cease the use of its biological and chemical weapons or “face retaliation in full measure”. (“A Preliminary Review: Studies of Japanese Biological Warfare Unit 731 in the United States” by Tien-wei Wu, http://www.nesa.org.uk/html/unit_731_-_preliminary_review.htm)
Members of the Japanese Biological and Chemical Weapons programme were prosecuted as war criminals if captured by Soviet forces. (Source: “World War II in the Pacific : Japanese Unit 731 Biological Warfare Unit” http://www.ww2pacific.com/unit731.html.)
Those members from the same Units who surrendered to the United States were treated rather differently. These members were both an asset to the US and a liability to it. Information was gained and controlled.
In both the immediate post War era and during the Cold War, the nuclear superiority of the United States depended upon the security of its classified weapons data. That stood for all types of weapons, for the Soviet Union also gained access to the Japanese biological and chemical weapons data. Professor Shimizu and other Japanese nuclear surveyors held knowledge of the atomic bombs’ weapons effects which were Secrets of the United States.
The poison gas facilities on Okunoshima Island presented important, purely military, targets yet were ignored by Allied attack of any kind. Upon Allied Occupation of the facility, the Okunoshima technical and medical records relating to the production and use of poison gas was commandeered by the United States. (Source: http://www.defence.gov.au/army/AHU/books_articles/The%20Forgotten%20Force/ )
Today the Poison Gas Factory on Okunoshima Island is a museum which enjoys 52,000 visitors each year. There is no concrete evidence that the existence of the island’s facilities were the reason for the atomic attack upon Hiroshima city. (Source: The New York Times, August 12, 1995). Further research is required to determine the existence of any link between the weapons of mass destruction possessed by Japan and those used against it by the United States of America. For example, On August 9, 1945, Nagasaki was subjected to US atomic attack. However, Nagasaki was a secondary target. The primary target, Kokura was not attacked due to cloud cover.
The New York Times of August 7, 1995 reported: “The city (Kokura) was also the place where chemical weapons were secretly assembled for Japan’s army. The Kyodo news agency recently turned up once-classified American military documents that show that by July 2, 1945, Washington knew that chemical weapons were being made in Kokura.”
The same source states that Kokura was the secondary target if the atomic attack upon Hiroshima was prevented by conditions.
There is a logical link between the manufacture of poison chemicals on Okunoshima Island, their transport to Kokura for assembly into munitions and the atomic attack targeting priorities of the United States.
There is a need to discover the state of US knowledge of Japanese chemical weapons logistics and transport in order to determine why the purely military target of Okunoshima Island was not considered a priority while predominately civilian cities were incinerated and contaminated by atomic bombs. The record shows that the bulk of the casualties from the Hiroshima bomb were civilian. The Japanese military withstood the attack with sufficient resilience and resource to mount the actions of rescue, survey and recovery with the sophistication described by Professor Shimizu. Despite the attacks, Japan’s chemical weapons arsenal remained intact.
This arsenal remained therefore a potent threat to the pending invasion of Japan by the USSR as Stalin sought to exceed the agreement reached at Potsdam for the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and China, timed to commence in August 1945. This invasion, commonly known as August Storm, was punctuated by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as the USA apparently drew a line in the sand for Stalin with the bodies of Japanese civilians.
More on August Storm can be read at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_invasion_of_Manchuria it seems to me the whole conventional narrative of ending of World War 2, including the actual aims in the use of atomic bombs and their consequences is very twisted out shape as the USA determined to attempt several outcomes from the one action. As is common in military undertakings.
THE FATE OF JAPANESE BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND NUCLEAR RESEARCHERS UNDER THE US COMMAND
In exchange for information relating to Japan’s biological and chemical warfare data held by Unit 731, Lt. Col. Ryoichi Naito of that Unit, was granted war crimes immunity by the United States. He was appointed head of Green Cross, one of Japan’s top pharmaceutical companies. Other Unit 731 leaders joined him there. (Source: “Japan’s Germ Warfare and the Korean War” Lee Wha Rang, July 27, 1996. See also Dick Russell’s book, “The Man Who Knew Too Much”.) China remains sensitive to the continued under reporting of such events.
Shimizu, a member of the defunct F-go naval atomic bomb project, though innocent of any crime, was vulnerable to the dictates of the Occupation Authorities. As previously noted, the US confiscated the Hiroshima survey notes and other evidence. No doubt Shimizu and others had to remain compliant to information control and political sensitivities between Japan and the US in order to be employable in their positions.
Professor Shimizu carried out a distinguished career. He achieved “Full Professor” in the Institute of Chemical Research, Kyoto University, and in 1952 he was appointed Director of the Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation (now, the Laboratory of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Division of States and Structures). At the same time, beginning in 1953, he served as a Lecturer in Physics at the Konan University in Kobe, Japan.” (Source: OBITUARIES, Professor Dr Sakae Shimizu (July 18, 1915 to December 13, 2003) (Adapted by John Hubbell from obituary provided by Professor Yasuhito Isozumi, Kyoto University, also from a bio sketch by Professor Megumi Tashiro at the time of Professor. Shimizu’s retirement to emeritus status in 1979.”) http://www.canberra.edu.au/irps/Archives/vol17no3/obituaries.html)
The National Interest of the US determined many outcomes in the Post War era. Many documents relating to fallout and radiation remained classified until President Clinton’s Executive Order of the 1990s. (The DOE Openness Project). Such considerations may account for the lack of alpha data in Shimizu’s paper.
On November 10 1999 the US Senate debated the “Japanese Imperial Army Disclosure Act of 1999”. In the course of debate Mrs. Feinstein stated in part : “This legislation will require the disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act classified records and documents in the possession of the U.S. Government regarding chemical and biological experiments carried out by Japan during the course of the Second World War……. This legislation is needed because although the Second World War ended over fifty years ago–and with it Japan’s chemical and biological weapons experimentation programs–many of the records and documents regarding Japan’s wartime activities remain classified and hidden in U.S. Government archives and repositories. Even worse, according to some scholars, some of these records are now being inadvertently destroyed… The world is entitled to a full and complete record of what did transpire…… Professor Sheldon’s letter goes on to discuss three examples of the destruction of documents relating to chemical and biological warfare experiments that he is aware of: At Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah, at Fort Detrick in Maryland, and at the Pentagon.” (Source: Congressional Record: November 10, 1999 (Senate) Page S14533-S14571 STATEMENTS ON INTRODUCED BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTIONS By Mrs. FEINSTEIN: S. 1902).
The United States utilized the Japanese Biological and Chemical weapons data. It kept that data secret. It developed and built its own arsenal of similar weapons. This arsenal complimented the US nuclear arsenal.
Likewise, the 1945 Japanese Hiroshima survey data was confiscated, kept secret for many years and was slowly disclosed and returned.
Those Japanese personnel involved the Biological and Chemical weapons programmes and who complied with US terms were rewarded with careers and in cash. The cash amounted to 40 million yen in current value. A US document states “data on human experiments may prove invaluable” and said the information was “only obtainable through the skilful, psychological approach to top-flight pathologists” involved in Unit 731 experiments.” (Source: Australian Broadcasting Commission media report : “US paid for Japanese human germ warfare data” Monday, August 15, 2005. Report cites the findings of researcher Keiichi Tsuneishi, Professor at Kanagawa University).
The silence of the Japanese early surveys was easier to assure. Confiscation of data, and censorship of Japanese reporting.
This may explain the nature and contents of Professor Shimizu’s Paper: its lack of reporting of findings of fission product and uranium by the team he was a part of, and the vastly different result obtained by modern Japanese researchers studying samples returned by the US since the 1970s.
On 6 August 2006, CRI News agency, China, reported that two of Professor Shimizu’s notebooks relating to the Navy’s atomic bomb program had been discovered in the U.S. Library of Congress. CRI reported that the Library had over 10,000 un-catalogued Japanese wartime documents. The article can be accessed via CRI English.Com at
Professor Shimizu writes “In the morning of the 20th of November in our laboratory room where the Cockcroft-Walton machine was in operation and a room where a cyclotron was under construction were occupied by the Occupation Forces (about 20 soldiers directed by an officer), and we were forbidden to enter these rooms. Three days later our cyclotron was smashed away, and in addition, unfortunately some valuable records and data of our early studies on the Hiroshima disaster were confiscated by them and have never been returned.” (Shimizu, page 52: “Historical Sketch of the Scientific Field Survey in Hiroshima, Several Days after the Bombing” and is published, in English, in the “Bulletin of the Institute for Chemical Research”, Kyoto University, Volume 60, (2), 1982”, pages 39 – 54.
No doubt the confusion between the abortive Japanese Naval atomic program and the Kyoto University survey documents and sample related to the repeated investigative field work undertaken by Shimizu et al in August and September 1945 in the atomic ruins of Hiroshima is seen by some as handy.
Meanwhile, those Australians who fell ill and died prematurely as a result of their service in radiation affected areas of Japan are ignored by Australia. The US Nagasaki and Hiroshima veterans have at least the compassion enacted by President Reagan. Despite the fact that nuclear industry and nuclear authorities both in Japan and elsewhere continue to deny the facts of history. Within the last few months the Japanese government has refused enact the findings of the Japanese courts. The government refuses act on the clear finding that the area of Hiroshima affected by the Black Rain produced by the atomic bomb be quite widely broadened.
Today the Japanese government considers that these survivors, who uniformly suffer a persistent and remarkable form of fatigue, to be suffering anxiety, not the effects of cytokine inflamation produced by radiation exposure.
“Bomb survivor doctor continues to speak up about significance of internal exposure
“Internal radiation exposure has been around since the Hiroshima/Nagasaki days,” said 95-year-old doctor Shuntaro Hida. He has treated over 6,000 patients with bura-bura disease, a kind of fatigue seen among A-bomb survivors, and is himself a survivor of the Hiroshima bombing. His voice carried well inside the Yokohama auditorium where he was giving a lecture titled “The Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant Incident and Internal Radiation Exposure.”
“People who weren’t in Hiroshima or Nagasaki when the bombs fell, but went there a few days later searching for family members died mysteriously,” he said. Though Hida usually walks with a cane, his speech was an impassioned one that he gave for two hours on his feet.
Hida was stationed at an army hospital in Hiroshima in 1944. A first lieutenant doctor, he was in the city of Hiroshima’s Higashi Ward about 6 kilometers away from the bomb’s hypocenter when the bomb was dropped. Before the day was over, he had made numerous trips back and forth from the hypocenter, and later offered emergency medical treatment in the surrounding areas. Because of the sheer number of people who suffered horrendous burns, the mysterious phenomenon of people entering the city after the bombing and dying strange deaths went relatively unnoticed.
One woman arrived in Hiroshima a week after the bombing to look for her husband. After walking the ruins of the city for a week, they were reunited. However, when she was helping to take care of a critically injured patient, she developed a fever and purple spots on her skin. Her hair also fell out, and she vomited blood before she died.
Witnessing such a phenomenon, Hida and his colleagues came up with the concept of “city-entering radiation exposure.”
“The term ‘internal radiation exposure’ didn’t exist at the time,” Hida said. “Because these people entered the city and were exposed to radiation, we called it ‘ city-entering radiation exposure.’ We had no theory on why they were dying, though.”
According to Hida, among victims of “city-entering radiation exposure,” some died while others went on to live, albeit with various ailments.
Hida subsequently began union activities, and in 1950, opened his own clinic in Tokyo’s Suginami Ward. He later relocated to neighboring Saitama Prefecture and worked as an internist, while serving from 1979 to 2009 as the chair of the Japan Confederation of A- and H-Bomb Sufferers Organizations’ central consultation center.
During this time, atom bomb survivors flocked to see the rumored “radiation doctor.” They always came in the evening, right before the Hida’s clinic closed. They did not disclose at the reception desk that they had been exposed to radiation; Hida intuited from their behavior in the exam room that they were.
“Atom bomb survivors were at one time unable to take out life insurance policies. Countless survivors have been discriminated against in marriage, studies, employment, and other important life events,” Hida writes in his book, “Naibu hibaku no kyoi” (The Threat of Internal Radiation Exposure). “This is inherited by the second (children’s) generation, and the third generation . . . “
Hida, who had seen so many atomic bomb survivors forced to live lives at the bottom rungs of society, continued for years to pursue the medical mechanism for “city-entering radiation exposure.” Some 30 years after the bombs had been dropped, Hida happened upon a paper about internal exposure written by an American researcher. Hida said he was dumbfounded when he read that many people affected by U.S.-run nuclear experiments had presented symptoms similar to bomb survivors in Japan. He then translated such papers into Japanese, and started speaking up about the dangers of internal radiation exposure in both Japan and abroad.
To his audience in Yokohama, Hida spoke about people who had survived direct damage from the bomb, but who after a few years were suffering from fatigue so intense that they could not sit up.
“They didn’t bleed, their hair didn’t fall out, they were suffering no visible ailments, and yet there were so many people claiming to be deathly exhausted. I’d examine them, and find nothing wrong. They were perceived to be lazy, and a patient’s family member named it “bura-bura” (an onomatopoeia describing someone hanging out and doing nothing) disease.
Bura-bura patients were mostly healthy people prior to radiation exposure, but now become easily ill. They feel lethargic, which keep them from sticking to work. Doctors examining them can find nothing out of the ordinary, which is why many have been labeled by friends and family as lazy.
After the lecture, Hida added: “To put it simply, it’s a generalized weakness in the body. You only have the patient’s word, and it defies categorization under modern medicine, so a doctor might diagnose it not as a physical illness but as a neurosis. Recently, a researcher on the Chernobyl disaster in the former Soviet Union told me there’s such a thing as “radiation fatigue” — thus named because people who had been exposed to radiation from the incident were tired. The way I see it, it wouldn’t be strange in the least if such symptoms were seen in Fukushima.” Reported by the Mainichi Daily News, Japan, in 2011. The article is now archived, the original link being http://mdn.mainichi.jp/mdnnews/news/20120123p2a00m0na013000c.html
“Areas covered by free checkups for people exposed to radioactive “black rain” after the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima should not be expanded, a Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare panel concluded on May 29. (2011)
While not recognizing any physical effect on residents who were exposed to the black rain outside the currently recognized areas, the panel’s report incorporated opinions that national assistance to those residents should be limited to psychological care, saying, “It is important to lessen their anxieties over radiation.”
Based on the panel report, the health ministry will carefully assess requests filed by the Hiroshima Municipal Government and others to expand the areas eligible for free health checkups.
A survey conducted by the city of Hiroshima in 2008 has shown that residents in broader areas responded that they were exposed to the black rain. Based on the survey results, the city has asked the national government to expand eligibility for free physicals and other assistance in accordance with the Atomic Bomb Survivors’ Assistance Law to cover some six times the currently recognized area. At present, people who were in an area 11 kilometers wide within 19 kilometers northwest of the Hiroshima hypocenter are eligible for national assistance.
However, the panel upheld a report filed in January this year by the health ministry’s working group which said, “In the city’s survey, there are only limited areas where more than 50 percent of people said they experienced the black rain outside the areas eligible for assistance.” The panel concluded that the city’s survey lacked sufficient data, saying, “Scientific and rational grounds are necessary” to determine the eligible area.
via Mainichi Source: http://www.houseofjapan.com/local/no-expansion-of-hiroshima-black-rain-medical-assistance-areas
” Give relief to all Hibakusha affected by ‘black rain’ June 10, 2011 Akahata editorial
The Health Ministry’s committee in an interim report has concluded that there is no need to expand the area designated by the government as having been affected by radiation-contaminated “black rain” following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in 1945. Ignoring local governments’ assertion that the radiation fallout affected a much wider area, the committee plans to finalize the report in early July.
Those who were exposed to the “black rain” within the designated area are authorized to receive medical assistance from the government. By recognizing only a very limited area to have been contaminated by the radiation fallout, the government has left many Hibakusha without the medical support they are entitled to have. It must expand the recognized area and give relief to all Hibakusha.
Calling residents liars
Launched in December last year, the ministry’s committee examined research conducted by the Hiroshima prefectural and city governments in 2008 on about 30,000 Hibakusha’s health conditions. Based on their testimonies that they had been exposed to the radiation fallout outside the officially-designated area, the research suggested that the area where the “black rain” had fallen could be six times larger than the one designated by the government.
The committee’s latest report ignored the revelation of the actual radiation damage and the victims’ urgent call for expansion of the designated area.
The report stated that neither radiation fallout nor internal/external exposure to radiation could be found outside the designated area so that “additional research has little significance.” It thus has no intention to provide relief to people who have been suffering from severe health conditions.
While many residents have been maintaining that they had been exposed to the “black rain” outside the designated area as well, the ministry’s committee has treated their argument as mistaken memory, saying, “It happened more than 60 years ago.” The government deserves to be condemned for rejecting the residents’ request by calling them “incompetent liars”.
Further evidence concerning exposure to radiation has recently been produced. Surveys conducted by Hiroshima University and Kanazawa University show that high levels of cesium from the A-bombing were detected in areas far from the designated area. In addition, data on 13,000 victims were discovered last year which the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had collected in 1950. The government must expand the designated area, accepting the residents’ claims and the facts that have come to light.
The authorities have refused Hibakusha’s requests to widen the designated area claiming that their argument is “scientifically groundless”. It is unforgivable for the national government to disregard the report submitted by local governments without conducting a survey of A-bomb survivors, which should have been carried out by the central government in the first place.
Responsibility to acknowledge all victims
To abandon the A-bomb victims by unfairly narrowing the “black rain area” is no longer accepted. Two years ago, replying to a question from Japanese Communist Party member of the House of Councilors Nihi Sohei, then Welfare Minister Nagatsuma Akira said that if a new report on A-bomb victims is submitted by municipalities, they will take it “seriously”. The Noda Cabinet should fulfill the promise made by the welfare minister in the Diet.
The residents exposed to the “black rain” are aging. The government’s most urgent task is to expand the designated area to the entire area where the “black rain” had fallen and relieve all Hibakusha of their pain and suffering.” Source: http://www.japan-press.co.jp/modules/news/index.php?id=3454
Since 1945 nuclear authorities have disallowed the experience of people who suffered nuclear fallout due to the atomic bombings of Japan. The techniques used have not varied since 1945. Today the surviving victims of the Black Rain are, as reported by the Japanese press quoted above, called liars and anxiety cases by their government. Again, it does not take a long read of the effects of radiation to find the symptom set presented by the victims as part of the constellation of effects of radiation.
As to the safety of internal emitters, I will quote Hamilton further in the next section, the 1950s. There is one final source to cite before I leave World War 2.
Immediately after the atomic bombings, the Imperial Japanese government confiscated any photographs of Hiroshima that it considered posed a threat to the morale of the wider Japanese population. Due to the widespread confiscation of bomb related material, the United States may still hold these photographs. (Source: Palmer, D., “The Missing 72 Hours: Are there Hidden Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Photos?” 2004. Dr Palmer is Senior Lecturer in American Studies at Flinders University of South Australia. The Hiroshima Peace Museum Display confirms the confiscation of photographs by the United States.)
The scenes of Hiroshima that depict a depopulated desolation have presented a sanitized view for many years. The scenes are not in accord with the statements and art of the survivors (ibid, Palmer). The scenes do not validate the survivors’ experiences and memories. The space depicted was full of people in torment and despair, injury and death. It was a crowded city.
The acknowledgement of the suffering of the atomic survivors is incomplete. The world is more dangerous today than it might have been had full disclosure of their experiences been made sixty-three years ago. (Photographs purporting to be of Hiroshima immediately after the bombing have been shown to actually be of the 1928 Tokyo earthquake. There is a missing period of time which is only recorded by the words and paintings of the survivors. Photographs were taken of the bomb stem and immediate aftermath in Nagasaki. The with holding pf photographic evidence of the immediate blast and immediate period after, the missing 72 hours, would be a reprehensible suppression. Dr Palmer states: “…There also was the Japanese militaristic holocaust against the people of China – and the American holocaust against the people of Japan in the urban fire bombings and the atomic bombings. Among many in the West, it is considered wrong to define the U.S. atomic bombings as a “holocaust”. In large part this is not related to numbers – those civilians killed – but to visual images that have been presented to the public and vetted by governments. If visual images of the real level of human destruction and terror of the Hiroshima bombing in the form of actual photos were made public – if they existed – few would doubt that Hiroshima was a genuine holocaust. Source: The Missing 72 Hours: Are there Hidden Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Photos?” Dr David Palmer, http://www.flinders.edu.au/people/david.palmer
To quote paraphrase Professor Shimizu: “The Hiroshima weapon had not destroyed all military installations. At least 3 major
military depots in the area were functional and habitable. In contrast, the civilian centre
was “ruined, ghostlike” (ibid, page 42). Piles of bodies lay by the Central station on the
10th. The city smelt of death. Yet the Marine Naval Station, the Eastern Parade Ground
and a major stores depot, Hiroshima Army Ordnance Supply Depot, South East of
Hijiyama Hill and military installations on Edjima Island were functional.
The A bomb could not be limited to purely military targets and the bulk of its destruction
was unleashed upon civilians. As a weapon of war it was demonstrated to be indiscriminate
and not able to be targeted against specific objects.
The fact remains that calculations put the hypocentre “Long. 132 degrees 27 minutes 29
seconds E x Lat. 34 degrees 23 minutes 29 seconds N with an error of about 15 metres. This
point is located on the grounds of SHIMA HOSPITAL, 160 metres from the A bomb
Dome…..They also estimated the altitude of the burst point as being 580 plus or minus 15
metres.” (Shimizu, reference 13, citing Hubbell Jr et al 1969. Shimizu states in early August
Japanese estimates place the hypocentre 130 metres North West ). “Historical Sketch of the
Scientific Field Survey in Hiroshima Several Days after the Bombing” by Prof Sakae
Shimizu, 1982, published by Bulletin of the Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto
University, Volume 60, (2), 1982.
The Atomic Test Era
It would be a futile undertaking in the confines of a blog post to attempt to provide reference sources for all of the suppression of medical evidence which establishes the fact that this suppression is a key tactic used by nuclear authorities to maintain its position of influence over the body politic in nations around the world.
I will focus on specific Australian examples and one British example. The historical record of the United States, thanks to Markey in the 1980s and the Clinton Administration of the 1990s is full and accessible. Clinton ordered that millions of cubic feet of previously classified documents which establish the abuse of the American people by nuclear authorities from the 1940s to the 1970s did in fact occur. By Executive Order these millionso of cubic feet documents were digitized and remain available to the public vie the Department of Energy’s Opennet online site.
President Clinton apologised to the American people for the abuses carried out against the people by nuclear authorities with actions which were found by the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to have breached the moral ethos of the era in which they were conducted and which, further, were in clear breach of the Nuremberg Principles. This is not a claim, it is on the public record of the office of the President of the United States.
The reader who accuses me of making claims instead of showing proof needs to realise I expect accusers to at least fire up their own brain cells and confirm historical realities which are common knowledge.
The President Apologizes for Human Radiation Experiments conducted against the American people:
President Clinton commented on the final report on human radiation experiments
Clinton’s Apology for human raditaion experiments
Human radiation experiments testimony 2/3
When an authority goes looking for the truth and permits it to be published and indeed mandates its publication, that authority earns respect.
In terms of the Australian experience, the findings enabled by Clinton’s ACHRE committee confirmed what had been suppressed but suspected in Australia for many years. That the United States of America took an Australian boy, Simon Shaw, who was suffering terminal bone cancer, and on the false promise of a new treatment for his condition flew the boy to the USA where Dr Hamilton’s staff injected Simon not with the new promised treatment, but with plutonium, in order to see how much would be excreted and how much would be retained within the dying child’s body. Simon was then flown back to Sydney, and returned to hospital. The USA did not warn Simon, his parents or his Australian treating medical staff that Simon’s urine and feces was radioactive with plutonium. Simon died. He is recorded by the responsible US nuclear authorities not by his name, but by a set of code letters and a number. 5 yr-old Simon Shaw, code named CAL-2 by the nuclear authorities of the USA, and his mum. (Source: Welsome, Eileen. The Plutonium Files- America’s Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War. New York: The Dial Press, 1999.)
Since March 2011 academics in Japan sponsored by nuclear industry and government have called upon the Japanese people to accept that plutonium and cesium and strontium is safe to eat. This is on the public record. I say this to the Japanese Government: How many moral equivalents of Simon Shaw do you wish to create in Japan? Noda, call your nuclear dogs off!! “On June 11, 2012, “Fukushima Nuclear Plant Legal Action Group,” consisting of over 1,300 Fukushima residents, filed charges with Fukushima District Public Prosecutor’s Office for professional negligence resulting in deaths and/or injuries, against a total of thirty-three individuals including TEPCO management, government officials, and radiation specialists. Shunichi Yamashita was one of them.” Source: http://fukushimavoice-eng.blogspot.com.au/2012/08/analysis-radiation-health-risk.html
The actions of the United States in such events as the deliberate administration of plutonium, radio strontium and other fission products to unwitting humans without informed consent is not unique, and the moral atrophy of British nuclear authorities, protected as they remain by a far less openness than is guaranteed (eventually) by the US Constition and Bill of Rights, certainly behaved in similar ways toward Australian citizens, Australian Aboriginal people (who were not permitted to be Australian citizens until the passage of the 1967 referendum. Ironically, until this time, Australian Aborigines had been under the protection of the British Crown, and Australian and British nuclear veterans.
Three Books by Aboriginal Authors about the Realty of Contact with Fission Fallout.
Maralinga dust / Lallie Lennon
Lennon, Lallie Kantjuringa Local call number: B P957.37/W1 Principal Author:
Lennon, Lallie Kantjuringa Title: Maralinga dust / Lallie Lennon Source: Women of
the centre / edited by Adele Pring Apollo Bay, Vic.; Pascoe , 1990; p. 88-98; ill., map,
port. Imprint: 1990 Annotation: Personal observation of effects of Maralinga testing
on health of her family Collection: Print – Book Analytics Topical: Defence – Missile
and weapons testing – Nuclear weapons Topical: Family Topical: Health –
Gastrointestinal system Topical: Health – Skin physiology and disease Place:
Maralinga (Far West SA SH52-12) The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander Studies Mura Library Catalogue
In addition Lallie Lennon appeared in the film “Backs to the Blast, an Australian Nuclear Story (1981)
Made 25 years after nuclear tests were conducted in SA in the 1950s, this documentary stirred up a political hornet’s nest. Length: 49 minutes 33 seconds. Production company: Composite Films. In this film the beta radiation burns Lallie suffered are clearly shown.
With the permission of Lallie Lennon and with the assistance of Michele Madigan, I submitted a report to the South Australian and Australian governments in the matter of the official denials still maintained by nuclear authorities in the matter of Lallie’s radiation injuries. The submission is reproduced in an earlier post here:
Lester, Yami & Institute for Aboriginal Development (Alice Springs, N.T.) 1993,
Yami : the autobiography of Yami Lester, Institute for Aboriginal Development, Alice
Lennon, Jessie and Madigan, Michele I’m the one that know this country! (Revised
ed). Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 2011.
In October 1953 a nuclear weapon test in South Australia resulted in cloud chase planes loosing track of a major parts of the nuclear cloud. The cloud broke up soon after detonation. Royal Australian and United States aircraft all lost track of these portions.
In the years since, reports from Aboriginal Australians and farmers all attested to the existence of a ground level cloud that rolled along the ground like a Black Mist. Both sets of witnesses reported a sticky residue left on objects in the path of the Black Mist.
Official response was one of denial.
In response to the persistent reports which related the horror of the Australian
Black Mist incident, in 1980 Professor Titterton, Chair of the Atomic Weapons
Test Safety Committee told national radio : “No such thing can possibly occur.
I don’t know of any black mists. No black mists have ever been reported until
the scare campaign was started. …If you investigate black mists sure you’re
going to get into an area where mystique is the central feature.”
Despite such official denials the stories of the events of October 1953
continued. Witnesses such as Yami Lester continued to speak of what was
seen and suffered as a result of the Black Mist from an atomic bomb blast.
The Black Mist rolled through places occupied mainly by Aboriginal
people. European Australians saw it also. For example, Mrs A. Lander, Mrs G.
Giles and Mr Ernest Giles testified to the existence of the cloud.
Some of the witnesses wrote accounts of the Black Mist. Yami Lester heard
Titterton lying on National Radio. Mr Lester’s autobiography has a vivid
recollection of the event which did cost lives. It cost Mr Lester his eye sight.
Other people who saw the cloud and suffered the consequences include Lallie Lennon and
the late Jessie Lennon. Both wrote books about the cloud and its effects.
Still, even today the Australian nuclear regulator maintains no harm came to anyone.
Here is a letter I received from ARPANSA, maintaining the “Titterton Line”
(the radiological equivalent of King Canute and the tide of truth):
I received an email from a solicitor informing me of the following:
From: Andrew Collett, solicitor
Date: 24 November 2010 21:53
I have been provided with your submission on behalf of xxxxxxxx
Are you aware that I acted for xxxxxx and secured compensation for x on the basis that x
xxxxxxxx was caused by the Totem I blast?
Further inquiries revealed that the outcome of a court case in which a victim who had suffered
a permanent injury due to contact with nuclear weapon fallout resulted in a finding for the victim.
On the basis of the medical evidence the court found that the bomb fallout had caused the injury.
However, the court proceedings in this matter are suppressed from the public record, and ARPANSA is still
therefore free to claim that nuclear fallout is perfectly safe.
It is not.
I can assure the reader that the statement made to me by Andrew Collett is not a “claim” but a statement of fact, and that the medical evidence accepted by an Australian Court establishes that the position of “no harm from nuclear fallout” maintained by ARPANSA is only tendered by that organization in the knowledge that medical evidence to the contrary is suppressed from the public legal record by the decree of Australian authorities. This is standard modus operandi for nuclear authorities as established since 1925.
The “missing” Maralinga Hospital nuke test treatment records – a lesson for us and for Fukushima.
December 28, 2011
http://johnkeane.net/47/topics-of-interest/maralingas-afterlife John Keane cites the official historian of the more than 500 “minor trials” (the ones that spread fission fuel over the land), Lorna Arnold. Arnold, according to Keane used the Maralinga Hospital records, among other thngs, the come up with exposure doses for the personnel involved in the experiments. He states “Arnold’s report drew upon blood tests and Maralinga hospital records that have since been destroyed.” Well, Arnold’s report, going on Keane’s account of it, is a paradox. For during the clean up in the 1990s was a hazardous affair. Even today areas north of Taranaki are unfit for humans.
So, one account of the records being destroyed after the official account was written. Not a surprising finding, given what was officially written about exposure doses supposedly based, in part, on the Maralinga Hospital records.
A letter was recieved by the Department of Veterans Affairs on 3 Nov 2008. Written by John Hutton, spokesperson, Australian Ex-Service Atomic Survivors Association, he states: “In August 1957 a number of the troop became ill with persistent vomiting but werereluctant to seek medical help for fear of being called ‘shirkers’. I was admitted to the Maralinga Village Hospital. on 29 August 1957 and did not return to work until after 7th September. I was treated with Largactil, which I now know is used not only for
vomiting but psychosis and radiation sickness. I attach a copy of my in- patient
record, probably the only copy of a Maralinga hospital record available as all others
seem to have completely disappeared.
Over the years I have worked very hard to make sure that the grave injustice to these
Veterans didn’t continue. I even lobbied the schools to have the British Nuclear Tests
in Australia included in the curricutum. It is quite remarkable the number of people
who are not aware that this travesty of justice happened on our own soil. It was
rewarding last year when the National Museum of Australia included this as one off
the subjects in their Touring History Agenda. I also appeared before the Royal
Commission, but recently I have had to curtail my activities due to ill health and
failing eye sight.”
The Maralinga Hospital document Mr. Hutton attached to the letter gives the “Firm diagnosis” as “Functional Vomiting”. The record gives Mr Hutton’s age at the time as 20 years, and the date of admission is given as 29 August 1957, the date of discharge as 7 September 1957. The total stay in the hospital is given as ten days.
One would think that a “Firm diagnosis” of functional vomitting – for ten days – is not a diagnosis but an observation of a sign of a symptom of an undisclosed cause. Apparently the Maralinga Hospital didn’t treat radiation sickness and its signs and symptoms.
The clinical notes written on John Hutton’s condition are as follows: “…history of persistent vomiting. No cause found on full examination. Not controlled by 50mg of Largactil tds. Three day intragastric milk drip successful.” The notes were written by a Captain in the RAMC.
(Pecher (1940) and Hamilton (1942) noted that the displacement of Sr** (all isotopes) was enabled by boosting calcium intake. It was one of the protective measures Hamilton communicated to Stone and Groves until the terms of the directive issued by Compton for protective measures to be identified.)
Largactil is also known as chlorpromazine. A bried look at studies of the drug turns up the following:
“The vitamins of the B complex, particularly pyridoxine, were the first group to show undoubted efficacy in the
treatment of radiation sickness (Maxfield et al., 1943; Oppenheim and Bjorn, 1946; Van Haltern, 1946;
Shorvon, 1949) and are still widely used.
The anti- histamines, having been proved useful in motion sickness, were advocated for radiation sickness (Lofstrom and Nurnberger, 1946), but, although still used by some radiotherapists, neither cyclizine hydrochloride (” marzine “) nor diphenhydramine hydrochloride (” benadryl “) is significantly better than inert tablets (Ellis and Stoll, 1952; Stoll, 1957a). In 1954 the value of chlorpromazine (“largactil”) in this condition was reported (Marks, 1954). Since then the phenothiazine series has expanded widely and has been tried extensively in the treatment of radiation sickness, and new types of central sedatives of the vomiting centre have been developed….” the report records a radomised trial in which patients suffering the effects of radiation treatment were given Largactil as an oral dose of 25mg. (Source: “Radiation Sickness. An analysis of over 1,000 controlled drug trials by Basil A. Stoll, M.R.C.S., F.F.R., D.M.R.T.& D., Peter MacCallum Clinic, Melbourne, British Medical Journal, August 25, 1962, pp 507)
The fact that the drug was administered to Mr Hutton was obviously based upon its established (though unsatisfactory) treatment for exposure to radiation. The effetiveness of vitamin B injections is explained by Stoll quite clearly and was known to the Hiroshima doctors, who, Hersey (1945) reports as administering liver extract for radiation victims whenever they had it available. (Liver extract and Vitamin B is discussed in the paper THE VITAMIN B1 AND B2 G CONTENT OF LIVER EXTRACT AND BREWERS’ YEAST CONCENTRATE D. K. Miller and C. P. Rhoads From the Hospital of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
Received November 26, 1933. J Exp Med. 1934 February 28; 59(3): 315–331.
For milk as a source of vitamin B, see THE FOLIO ACID AND VITAMIN B12 CONTENT OF
THE MILK OF VARIOUS SPECIES1R. A. COLLINS, A. E. HABPEB,2 M. SCHEEIBEE AND C. A. ELVEHJEM
Department of Biochemistry, College of Agriculture,
University of Wisconsin, Madison
(Received for publication September 13, 1950) Journal of Nutrition.
All the cited papers are within the era in which the knowledge was being applied to Mr Hutton. It seems to me that the treatments applied were all appropriate ones a doctor who has actually diagnosed or suspected radiation exposure as a cause of the signs exhibited by Mr Hutton. Yet the diagnosis is merely a description of what was happening (vomitting for 10 days).
Hutton in his 2008 letter writes: “Shortly before each bomb was exploded, I and a team of 4 other engineers would seal the entrance to one of the “Instrument bunkers” with about a thousand sand
bags, which we had previously filled. Then about half an hour after each explosion
we would return in my land rover and removed the sandbags. The bunkers were very
close to the GZ and the task took about an hour. We did not wear protective clothing
and the bulldust was so heavy that we wore handkerchiefs over our mouths. On
return, we were not checked for radiation and had to spend much time in the
showers. Attached is an extract from the list of personnel at the completion of the
countdown for Tadje. I am in charge of Sandbag Party B. It was impossible to work
wearing a respirator for either sandbagging or driving”
In the 1990s. Mr Hutton’s claim against the government was dismissed and in the course of the proceedings, learned gentlemen acting on behalf of our government made statements about their view of Mr Hutton as a drunkard. The sort of person the government would label “not fit and proper”. Any person of insight would see in such labels an organizational prejudice to persons who were traumatized by their experiences on the “practice” nuclear battlefield set up in Australia by British authorities. Authorities who to this day deny any harm was done. Mr Hutton’s sickness was not his only significantly negative experience at Maralinga. It is on the public record, but denied of course by nuclear authorities, that Mr Hutton was the person who found the body of an Aboriginal person on the Maralinga range.
Given the facts of the matter, and the uses of the treatments Mr Hutton recieved in the Maralinga Hospital, it is pretty clear that he was being treated for radiation sickness. And this treatment was documented in the records he was allowed to see and possess in such a way that no mention what so ever was made of the actual cause of his illness. It does not take 5 years of medical school to diagnose vomit. It takes skill and open medical reporting to actual create a medical file which not only lists the signs and symptoms, but also provides a diagnosis. However, the medicinal treatments given to Mr Hutton do tend to give the game away.
No wonder the real records from the hospital, the ones sent to England, have gone missing.
So no Mr Keane, it looks like they are not destroyed. One document held by Hutton indicates at least further documents consisting of the secret reports of the condition the personnel, probably despatched monthly to Whitehall or Aldermaston.
As for Lorna Arnold, well…let’s see how her findings of miminal radiation exposure to personnel stack up…
She was, according to the findings of Dr. Roger Cross, the author of at least one proven “whitewash” in regard to radiation exposure. The documents released to Mr Hutton by the Maralinga Hospital are obviously inadequate.
(of course, the whitewash continues in the law courts, and is aided by people who contact me telling me to forget the past and focus on modern information….information formulated from the whitewash….)
3. The Independent (http://www.independent.co.uk) reporter Kathy Marks.
June 15, 2001 http://reocities.com/rainforest/andes/5563/maralinga3.htm
Thousands of young, inexperienced troops observed nuclear tests in 1950s Australia. They were never informed of the risks. Survivors tell Kathy Marks of the sickness that has never been acknowledged.
“As Peter Webb clambered over dust-coated Centurion tanks at ground zero in his regulation boots, shorts and short-sleeved shirt, he saw other men walking around in full-length white “space-suits” with gloves, hoods, masks and rubber boots. They were the scientists, and they always wore protective clothing in the forward area. The young servicemen who worked there almost never wore any protective gear. Webb was admitted to Maralinga Hospital with nausea and headaches, as were many others; the precise figure is not clear, as the hospital records have disappeared.
The average life expectancy of the men who helped Britain to achieve its place in the nuclear sun is 55.5 years. There are just a few thousand surviving veterans in Britain and in Australia, and they believe that their governments are simply waiting for them to die.”
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
TV PROGRAM TRANSCRIPT
Secret documents detail plan to use servicemen in atomic tests
Reporter: Geoff Hutchison
“ANNE MUNSLOW-DAVIES: What I would really like to see in those documents is the records from the Maralinga hospital.
To date, they have never been found and no-one knows their whereabouts.
PETER WEBB: But every now and again, when something comes up like this, Peter Webb comes up and says, “Hey!
I’m still here, I’m still alive, I’m still breathing’. What are you going to do about it?”
I still get the same answer – “Nothing, bugger off and die,” and that’s the sad part.
KERRY O’BRIEN: We should point out that Veterans Affairs Minister Bruce Scott has been out of the country and unavailable for interview.”
SECRET records detailing the fate of dozens of babies born in the shadow of Maralinga’s nuclear testing hold the key to a case that is building as South Australia’s largest class action.
More than 100 South Australians have joined a class action against the British Ministry of Defence over deaths and disabilities they believe were caused by nuclear testing at Maralinga more than 50 years ago.
Among them are families of the Woomera babies – more than 60 lives lost, many without explanation, during the decade of nuclear testing, up to 600km away.
Lawyers running the case say it is “just the tip of the iceberg”. They have heard only from people who are “very confident” they have a case for compensation, AdelaideNow reports.
Already, families of some of the stillborn children, hours-old babies and toddlers who account for more than half the plots in Woomera Cemetery for the 1950s and 1960s, have come forward.
Edith Hiskins, 79, of Willaston, gave birth to a stillborn daughter, Helene Michelle, in March 1963, and still is not satisfied with the reason given for her baby’s death.
Mrs Hiskins, and her husband John, a serviceman at Woomera, were told the baby girl was stillborn due to “mild toxemia” – a cause not given until years after her death and only after they pushed authorities for a death certificate.
The parents never saw their daughter , who was buried in the cemetery the next day, and they have never seen her medical records. “I would like some answers as to why that happened, because the answers given on her death certificate, I do not find sufficient,” Mrs Hiskins said.
“As far as I know, her records were sealed. It was years before we even got a death certificate.”
Mrs Hiskins said she, or her family, are likely to join the class action. “There are still questions to be answered and reasons to be given,” she said.
In all, the Woomera Cemetery contains 23 graves for stillborn babies born in the hospital between December 1953 and September 1968, and a further 46 graves for other children who died around that period. Autopsies were not always conducted and it is understood the medical records of those 23 stillborn babies remain sealed and held by the National Archives of Australia.
6. British surrender over Maralinga clean-up bill
(The British said the place was perfectly clean and safe. It was not.)
7. Major Alan Batchelor’s submission:
Submission to the Clarke Review
“Not considered, were the actions taken by Government to hide the total range of health and
genetic effects resulting from exposure to ionising radiation and other toxic materials associated
with nuclear weapon tests. Maralinga and other hospital records went missing and those with
dangerous exposures had their names and dosage records removed from the oﬁicial listings.
“ltiere are a number of practical examples where nuclear veterans were exposed to dose rates
many thousands of times higher than the Cancer and Mortality Study’s “ail-purpose‘ dose rate”
and so on.
The google stats on my search for “maralinga hospital records” was 39,800 results (0.26 seconds).
Ms Arnold would be pretty busy these days. And instead we have the hormesis and adaptive response crew writing in telling me to report on modern stuff instead.
The modern stuff is actually Lorna Arnold’s flock of parrots.
Apparently its ok though if you present with “motion sickness” and “psorasis”. Don’t dare tell the truth, radiation sickness and beta burn or they won’t apparently treat you. Even though the treatments can be the same or similar.
(see above, and Cronkite, AEC, Marshall Islands, 1954.)
Dave Whyte reports on British actions and Andrew asks a question.
The following images of a British newspaper report were sent by Dave Whyte.
When will British authorities be called to account?
Andrew Kishner of http://www.nuclearcrimes.org/ has asked about crimes involving the use of humans in close in areas at Australian nuclear test sites, as occurred in the US (Gallagher).
One of my emails in answer to Andrew is the following:
It appears it was the UK Independent newspaper which raised again the issue of human test subject use in areas very close to blast point. It re raised the matter in print in June 2001. One google hit is displayed as :
WA: Researcher seeks proof of disabled in nuclear tests – AAP …
13 Jun 2001 – PERTH, June 13 AAP – A Perth researcher hopes a pilot in his 70s will come forward to prove that … had told them he had flown disabled people to Maralinga test sites. … The Independent (London, England); June 11, 2001 … but the link is empty of information.
Another “Independent” report of the same week mentions the report again in the final sentences of the article. http://marcosaba.tripod.com/independent14june2001.html
“In Canberra, meanwhile, there were calls yesterday for an investigation into allegations reported by The Independent this week that disabled people were flown from Britain to Maralinga and used in experiments on the effects of radiation.
Lyn Allison, a member of the opposition Democrats in the Senate, said: “If it is true that people with disabilities were brought to Australia … then there are some very serious questions about how they came to be here.” A Royal Air Force pilot who claims to have flown disabled people to Australia has been identified as Allen Robinson, who went on to work in disability services in Perth.”
http://prop1.org/japan/speeches/e-pilip.htm (c) Disabled People Used
It is claimed that severely disabled people were sent from Britain to be used as guinea pigs during British atomic tests at Maralinga in the 1950s. The physically and mentally disabled people are assumed to have died after exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions. Claims that disabled people were used in experiments to measure the effect of radiation exposure on the human body were examined in the 1985 royal commission into the tests. They were dismissed as unsubstantiated, but Britain’s ‘Independent’ newspaper claims to have uncovered new evidence from a pilot who confirmed he flew disabled people to Australia from Britain.
And a Yahoo group message of June 2001 contains a now dead link to the “West Australian” newspaper accounts of the revived reports of the matter. The poster transcribed the article into his post though
“CANBERRA SUSPICIONS have been revived that people with severe disabilities
were used as human guinea pigs during British atomic tests at Maralinga in
The control group apparently was flown from Britain and died after being
exposed to radioactive fallout as part of an experiment on the effects of
radiation on humans.
The allegations were examined during the royal commission into British
nuclear tests in Australia but dismissed as unsubstantiated in its final
report, handed to Federal Parliament in December 1985.
However, Bob Jackson, director of Edith Cowan University’s centre for
disability research and development, said yesterday he had spoken to a
former pilot whose account tended to support the allegations.He was worried
the royal commission had not heard the man’s version of events.
Dr Jackson said he came across the story in the late 1980s when he was
regional director of the WA Disability Services Commission, where the former
pilot was an officer.
Dr Jackson was approached by the man after giving a presentation which
included a 1984 report in The West Australian of claims of atomic testing on
The man told him he had flown a planeload of disabled people from Britain
to the Maralinga test site. “We didn’t fly them out again,” the man said.
Dr Jackson said he had no reason to disbelieve the man, whose name he could
not remember. The allegations came after Dr Jackson relayed them to former
servicemen fighting for compensation for radiation exposure at the British
nuclear tests in South Australia and WA’s Monte Bello islands.
So we have the name of the British pilot, Allen Robinson, who was in his 70s in the early 2000s, we have the name of an advocate of his testimony – Bob Jackson, director of Edith Cowan University’s centre for disability research and development and the name of a former politician who will recall the information as re presented in the early 2000s. Lyn Allison http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyn_Allison http://www.onlineopinion.com.au/author.asp?id=727
From my perspective, in the course of trying to find the answer to a simple question relating to Dr Cutter’s report to the Adelaide Advertiser and to the Royal Commission regarding casualties from the “Black Mist” nuclear bomb cloud event of 1953 – I asked for documents relating to the incident and I also asked for the location of the mass grave – I have no difficulty myself seeing the use of people as close in test subjects. As it was the Australian population at the time were all test subjects, though that of course is not the way the authorities see it. And the use of English people suffering disabilities (and hence under state care and control) is quite consistent with the way the authorities behaved. The answers to my questions about the Black Mist came in the form refusals to supply information, including denial of access to documents (Australia) and a decade long wait for the British response resulted in a letter from the British High Commission in Canberra which simply referred me to the Royal Commission documents – which are inadequate. There is no doubt that there were immediate casualties from the British Nuclear Tests in Australia and that these casualties involved a large number of people. The conventional historical record excludes these facts. These unacknowledged victims absolutely included Aboriginal people and I find that the deaths of both Aboriginal people and British people who were selected and flown out to the test site in South Australia, and who, in the case of Australian Aboriginal people, were herded into a cyclone compound at Maralinga overnight and who disappeared from that compound on the day of a bomb test, were probably used as test subjects in bunkers immediately adjacent to ground zero.
I disagree with the reports stating that fallout killed these people. I think those closest in would have been killed by gamma and neutron effects. Reports indicate the use of bunkers.
As the British were engaged in target response tests at these times, it it logical that they sought to definite the various effects at various distances on the ground from the point of detonation of the bombs. The sub-lethal ranges presented no problem – the nuclear veterans were there for that. The lethal ranges involved tethered animals (as Cross reports, tethered animals were present at Maralinga, the stated aim being to test the effect of fallout on plots of pasture.) and from the reports, humans. These people being the British people suffering various illnesses such as mental retardation and flown out for the tests and Australian Aborigines who were observed, by Australian troops, (as reported to me by one of them) held captive in a compound overnight and who disappeared again the next day, never to be seen again. The next day being the day of a bomb test.
While truckloads of Aboriginal people were moved from the area throughout the period, often being sent to Watson railway siding for despatch south to Yalata, it is against common sense to delay departure until the day of a bomb test. While Aboriginal people who witnessed military activity were warned that what they were seeing was secret, none, according to the accounts written by them, the use of cyclone enclosures was not normal procedure. The use of a cyclone enclosure to detain a group of Aboriginal people at Maralinga overnight prior to the detonation of a bomb, as reported to me by Terry Toon is a matter of grave concern and horrifically consistent with the report by the British pilot, Allen Robinson, in relation to the flying out from England of disabled people to the atomic test site Maralinga for use during the bomb tests.
Lastly, a senior staff member of the Roma Mitchell Legal Centre told me some years ago that US aircraft flew the bodies of Aboriginal people who were nuclear victims to the USA.
That is the situation as far as I am aware of it and all of the names I know in relation to the situation Andrew.
I think the matter will continue to be denied by authorities. Meanwhile, the memory of events held by those who did survive, and who tried to report events as they occurred will be remembered by those who knew the survivors. Those who remember Allen Robinson and his report include people in England, no doubt, who may wonder about the fate of the British people flown to the Maralinga Test Site. And there is not an Aboriginal person in this country, I think, who would believe the official acocunt in preference to the facts as retained and conveyed by and within Aboriginal individuals and culture. Titterton put all this down to “myth and mystique”. As it turns out. he knew very well that the science used a technique used to conceal the facts. Individuals are always part of families and communities and so their experiences extend beyond themselves. From the official point of view the “myths” persist. From the families’ and cultural perspective, the truth remains, even if officials refuse to claim it as their own.
The US experience of this, as reported by Carole Gallagher, is quite similar. As Titterton was under control from both British and US nuclear authorities, even as he performed his role as Chair of the Australian Nuclear Weapons Test Safety Committee, and seeing as US involvement in the nuclear tests in Australia was confirmed both by the presence of US Air Force aircraft in 1953 and by statements made by Titterton to the Royal Commission, it is not hard to see that events which occurred in the US also occurred in Australia. For in those days, the British government itself was subject to secrecy constraints applied to it by the United States. The British tests were a very real duplication of the American ones. Specific events were common to both. Nuclear Veterans from the US, Australia and England countries remain cohesive groups and retain a shared memory of actual events. This group record is in very great disagreement with the official view in very many aspects. Very great anger and outrage is felt and expressed to this day.
Dave Whyte wins access to his radiation exposure records – but it took 60 years.
From “The Courier” Friday 17 August 2012.
It took decades of fighting.
As the information presented in this blog demonstrates, everytime nuclear authorities release nuclear material into the environment, they assure people of safety. And as the information presented in this blog demonstrates, such assurances are lies.
The exposures accumulate.
The UK Government Redfern Report – the illegal taking of human tissue from deceased nuclear workers, children and others by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd
Nuclear Workers – Statement to the House of Commons, England.
The Rt. Hon. Alistair Darling MP, Former Secretary of State for Trade and Industry
House of Commons, 18 April 2007
With your permission Mr Speaker, I should like to make a short statement on the examination of tissue taken from some individuals who had worked in the nuclear industry and who died between November 1962 and August 1991.
Mr Speaker having regard to the feelings of the families of those concerned and because it is in the public interest, I want to provide the House with the information available from BNFL who now operate the Sellafield site where these examinations were carried out. I shall then set out how I intend to proceed with this matter.
Most employees worked at Sellafield but one individual worked at the Capenhurst nuclear site in Cheshire, and had transferred from Sellafield.
In addition, there is data but not medical records at Sellafield relating to an employee at the Springfields nuclear site in Lancashire and 6 at Aldermaston.
BNFL which holds the relevant medical records tell me that to date they have been able to identify 65 cases in which tissue was taken from individuals which was then analysed for the radionuclide content of organs.
It is important to tell the House the limited nature of the records that are held by BNFL.
These are medical records which show what analysis was done on organs removed following post mortem examination.
Because they are medical records which dealt with the analysis carried out at Sellafield they do not provide an audit trail which would show in every case who asked for such an examination under what authority and for what purpose. Nor do they disclose whether or not the appropriate consent from next of kind was received.
Some records have more information than others, but at this stage it is simply not clear what procedures were followed in every case.
From the information I have I can tell the House that 23 such requests for further examination and analysis were made following a coroner’s inquest. A further 23 requests appear to follow a coroner’s post mortem. 3 requests were made associated with legal proceedings and there was 1 request made associated with legal proceedings and there was 1 request made by an individual prior to death.
It is assumed, therefore, that these requests were made to help establish the cause of death in the normal way. In many cases this would be part of the coroner’s inquiry. But we cannot be sure of that because there is not an audit trail to establish that as a fact.
Mr Speaker there was a further single request made following a biopsy of a living individual.
In respect of a further 4 causes I understand that the records do not record by what mechanism the request for the analysis was made.
It is clearly important to establish why these requests were made and for what purpose.
It is also clear that the data obtained from these examinations has been used in other studies which were subsequently published.
One of the questions that arise is therefore whether or not it was appropriate to use the data gathered for this purpose.
Mr Speaker it follows from what I said that the records held by BNFL do not disclose whether or not the next of kin knew of these examinations and analysis. That is something that needs to be established.
Most cases appeared to come following a coroner’s request. It is possible therefore that in some cases there was such knowledge. But it is not at all clear that even if they had known about the analysis they would have been aware that data gathered was then used as part of wider research studies. However, it will be necessary to examine the coroner’s records to find out what the position was.
Mr Speaker, BNFL tell me that they believe that the tissue would have been destroyed. Certainly, BNFL tell me that no such tissue exists today. However, they are not certain at this stage what procedures were followed.
The House will appreciate that some of these cases go back 45 years. It is simply not possible therefore today to be sure whether procedures were carried out properly. The information held by BNFL as I have said necessarily limited and a full investigation is therefore necessary.
I believe that it necessary to establish why these examinations were carried out and whether or not the next of kin were informed and consented to this analysis.
It is also necessary to establish whether or not these examinations were carried out following the correct and proper procedures and whether the data obtained was used appropriately and with the necessary consents.
The families and the public will want to know the answers to all these questions.
I have therefore asked Michael Redfern QC, who conducted the ‘Royal Liverpool Children’s Inquiry at Alder Hey’ to carry out an independent investigation into this matter. I have asked him to establish the facts, and to report to me. This report will be published. I will inform the House of the full terms of reference shortly.
Mr Speaker this is clearly a difficult situation covering events that took place up to 45 years ago. Nonetheless we owe it to the families as well as to the general public to find out what happened and why.
Crown copyright 2007
BBC on the Scandal
16 November 2010 Last updated at 19:07 GMT
Sellafield body parts families given government apology
The Redfern Inquiry was ordered when it emerged in 2007 that tissue was taken from 65 workers at Sellafield in Cumbria between 1962 and 1992.
Publishing the report, Energy Secretary Chris Huhne said it was “regrettable” that organs were taken
Mr Huhne told the Commons the inquiry found there was a “lack of ethical consideration of the implications of the research work” carried out by the nuclear industry.
The same the world over.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Volume 234, Numbers 1-2, 171-175, DOI: 10.1007/BF02389767
Actinides in Biological and Environmental Systems
Analysis for actinides in tissue samples from plutonium workers of two countries
R. E. Filipy, V. F. Khokhryakov, K. G. Suslova, S. A. Romanov, D. B. Stuit, E. E. Aladova and R. L. Kathren
Radiation research on humans staged in Richland
By Annette Cary, Herald staff writer
RICHLAND — The rows of freezers in a new metal building near the Richland airport hold tissue samples from the women who used radioactive radium in the 1920s to paint the glow-in-the dark dials of watches and clocks.
With them are organs waiting to be processed and tissue samples from their more recent counterparts — former DOE nuclear weapons workers, including those at Hanford, who were exposed to radioactivity on the job and later volunteered to donate their bodies to science when they died.
Shelves hold boxes filled with organ samples dissolved in acid and preserved for future research. Other boxes hold bones, potentially contaminated, that have been turned to ash
It’s the nation’s collection of physical evidence amassed to provide clues to how exposure to actinides such as plutonium and uranium affect the human body — the goal of the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries.
The program is operated by the Washington State University College of Pharmacy and paid for with grants from the Department of Energy. Programs at different DOE sites were consolidated in Washington in 1992
This US piece was first referenced by a US correspondent to this blog.
Not much has changed since 1925 has it?
What the UK Veterans think of the findings of the Redfern Report
(email circulated to nuclear veterans)
Hi Jim ,
Thanks for your email enclosing report by Susie of the UK Sunday Mirror . We are now stepping up our campaign in the UK press with the following :
THE STUFF OF NIGHTMARES – FORGET WATERGATE THIS IS NUCLEARGATE .
Nuc vets have found once a politician has an umbilical cord attached to officials at the UK Ministry of Defence they say goodbye to honesty , integrity and any decency .The same applies in Aus .The reasons they change their minds on previous support are never given ..They are made to enforce policy against us .
Good news is , just when we UK nuc vets needed it , another nail has been hammered into the Ministry of Defence’s cold war policy of excluding nuclear test veterans, our premature widows and genetically damaged children from truth and justice .
The Redfern Inquiry Report ( Michael Redgrave QC ) published 16th Nov , together with the refusal of the Ministry of Defence to release 500 documents into the Court should just about destroy the Government’s credibility to any longer defend the indefensible in the Atomic Veterans Group Litigation ,
THE BODY SNATCHERS OF THE GOVERNMENT
the successors to Burke and Hare .
****** SEE BELOW – the studies the UK Government have relied upon to deny radiation damage to the nuc vets was carried out by the same ‘body snatchers’ , the so – called ‘independent ‘ NRPB , who were secretly taking tissue , body parts and organs from dead nuclear veterans , without the consent of their families , examining them for radiation damage and then destroying them .
This was done with the collusion of the MRC , Doctors , Pathologists and Coroners to avoid any possible future claims for damage . It is institutional corruption of people , who should be expected to be trusted professionals , on an epic scale .
For information . The Redfern Inquiry Report ( Michael Refern QC ) was released 16/11/2010 , on the day of the engagement of Prince William and Kate Middleton . Very convenient for the government who would no doubt like to see this story buried and hidden .
This can be accessed on google by typing in Redfern Inquiry Report , it will also give access to newspaper reports etc .
Several new papers are on to it , The Telegraph,. The Guardian and others on the internet but , so far none has picked up on the fact that the Report into the stolen body parts of nuclear power workers also includes that the same has happened to deceased nuclear test veterans . After removal of the organs , body parts or tissue and examination by the NRPB scientists , ironically now the Health Protection Agency, with assistance from Doctors , Coroners and Pathologists in the scandal all body parts taken are destoyed ..
THis information is vital to the Atomic Veterans Group Litigation currently progressing through the high court
THE REDFERN INQUIRY REPORT ..XXXXXX for nuclear veterans see p.89 and 90 – XXXX
The publication of the Redfern Inquiry Report ( by Michael Redfern QC ) yesterday 16th November, a three and a half year study into the removal of body parts , organs and tissue from nuclear power workers , without the families consent, over a fifty year period is the final nail in the coffin of Ministry of Defence / Government lies and misinformation on damage to health as a result of exposure of servicemen to ionising radiation at nuclear test locations .
Your attention is drawn to pages 89 and 90 of the 655 page Redfern Inquiry report (you may obtain this by searching google ). These pages provide damning and crucial evidence with regard to nuclear test veterans leGAL claims proceeding through the High Court as follows :
p 89 – Whose body organs were removed and why ? – the list includes ” Service veterans who had attended nuclear weapons tests “.
p 90 – Analysis of whose organs and the motive why they were removed ? – the report by Michael Redfern QC states , ” The motive for the work appears to have been similar to those set out in relation to nuclear industry , mainly scientific research and potential calims for damages “
(my underlining )
What happened to the removed body parts , organs and tissue ? The Redfern Report states they were destroyed .
A very convenient destruction of evidence ..
The NRPB studies ( disingenuously touted as ‘independent ‘ by politicians with an umbilical cord to the Ministry of Defence ) predictably used, like , all Ministers for Veterans and othe Defenec Ministers , this discredited series of studies , by epidemiological and satistical manipulation , to show no causal link to ill health in veterans ( without of course any medical monitoring of veterans heatlth whilst alive ). The NRPB stdies , at great expanse and waste of tax payers money , are now totally discredited because the Refern Inquiry Report shows the NRPB now the Health Protection Agency , together with Doctors , Coroners and Pathologists are all implicated in the body part scandal and cover up .
This is the stuff of nightmares .
The leg bone removed from one nuclear power worker was replaced by a broomstick so that the desecration and covert violation of his body would go unnoticed by his family at his funeral . The Government and the Ministry of Defence have acted like latter day grave robbers, on nuclear health matters , in order to hide the truth and must now pay the price . Shirle( 0208 6464098 ) knows a nuclear widow whose husband’s brain was removed .
This matter in regard to the nuclear test veterans will be decided in court through the Atomic Veterans Group Litigation ..Having been forced with no other obligation other than litigation is a breach of the miliary covenant by successive governments who have betrayed those who gave valuable service and sacrificed so much during the British Nucler Test progarmme 1952 to 67 to defend the nation during the cold war .
The Redfern Inquiry Report exposes the lie that the government where unaware of radiation damage to veterans . As such it gives no room for any credible defence by the MoD to the Atomic Veterans Group Litigation now proceeding in the High Court .
THE IRONY IS THAT DURING THE 1980′s AND 90′s when the NRPB carried out several discredited and manipulated statistical studies( Same format , methodology and protocol followe by Aus Mortality Study by adelaide University ) on veterans health , without any physical examination of them whilst alive , the Redfern Inquiry shows the NRPB was explicitly and deeply involved in the process to remove of body parts from the corpses , examining them for radiation damage and then destroying the evidence . Thsi is shown in the REDFERN REPORT to have been done with the assistance of Doctors , Pathologists and Coroners . It is corruption by officials on an epic scale .
for the Action Executive the CVFI
Copied to Dave Whyte ( Associate to the CVFI ) who has evidence that nuclear veterans , like himself , have been ‘flagged ‘ for medical research when dead .
THE COMBINED VETERANS’ FORUM INTERNATIONAL ( CVFI ) , FOUNDED IN 2002 , IS A SELF – FUNDED , INDEPENDENT FORUM OF NUCLEAR VETERANS AND WIDOWS SUPPORTING THE NUCLEAR VICTIMS OF THE BRITISH NUCLEAR TEST EXPERIMENTS 1952 TO 1967 .THE FORUM IS NOT AFFILIATED TO ANY POLITICAL PARTY AND BELIEVES THE ONLY ARBITER IN ANY NUCLEAR DEBATE ON RADIATION DAMAGE TO HUMAN HEALTH IS NOT THE AGENDAS OF POLITICIANS OR INDUSTRY BUT THE TRUTH OF THE SCIENCE .
THE ACTION EXECUTIVEOF THE CVFI IS COMPRISED OF SHIRLEY DENSON , NUCLEAR WIDOW ( 0208 6464098 ) , DENNIS HAYDEN , NUCLEAR VETERAN ( 01594 845118 ) – CO FOUNDERS , KEN McGINLEY, FOUNDER AND CHAIRMAN OF THE BRITISH NUCLEAR TEST VETERANS ASSOCIATION 1983 TO 2001 ( 01505 345612 ) UNITED KINGDOM AND ROY SEFTON QSM , CHAIRMAN OF THE NEW ZEALAND NUCLEAR TEST VETERANS ASSOCIATION ( NZ 0635 84841 ) .
THE ATOMIC VETERANS GROUP LITIGATION CURRENTLY PROGRESSING WITH SUCCCESS THROUGH THE HIGH COURT IS BEING CONDUCTED BY ROSENBLATT , SOLICITORS OF LONDON .
LEGAL ADVISOR TO THE CVFI IS :IAN ANDERSON , INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR ADVOCATE AND ATTORNEY AT LAW ( NEW YORK )
Strength in Unity
THIS IS AN OPEN EMAIL LETTER .
WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO DISTRIBUTE THIS EMAIL INTERNATIONALLY .
THE CVFI – 18th NOVEMBER 2010 .
In relation to my introductory post “Missing Medical Files and the central nuclear lie” https://nuclearhistory.wordpress.com/2012/11/09/missing-medical-files-and-the-central-nuclear-lie/ In the comment the reader stated “Do you have any references? It would be helpful if you’d link to references that support your claims.”
The introductory piece relied upon documented and referenced earlier posts and subsequent posts consisting of direct scans from the journal of the Australian Atomic Ex-Servicemen’s Association. The reader has a perfect right to ask for references and I hope the above information provides sufficient provenance to justify the statement that “Missing Medical Files lay at the heart of the central nuclear lie”, as I believe history copiously demonstrates.
Everyone is entitled to their own opinion. However, in relation to the nuclear deception, it is wise of the interested to do their own research.
The alleged experts in these matters have a clear charter to await the deaths of nuclear veterans and other victims so that nuclear industry can continue as if it had caused no harm to anyone. A patently and demonstrably false position.
I am rather curious now as to the fate of the British Radium Dial Painters. No doubt they received a rougher trot than their US counterparts.
I wonder how the Fukushima children will fare.
Fukushima kids cop ‘lifetime’ radiation dose
Fukushima kids cop ‘lifetime’ radiation dose
By North Asia correspondent Mark Willacy
Updated July 12, 2012 14:42:02
A Japanese study has found some children who live near the Fukushima nuclear plant have received “lifetime” doses of radiation to their thyroid glands.
A team from Japan’s Institute of Radiological Sciences used government data to measure the internal radiation exposure of more than 1,000 Fukushima children.
The Fukushima nuclear power plant emitted radiation after being crippled by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami.
Despite the government announcing more than half of the children had zero exposure, the independent study found that on average they did receive thyroid gland doses of internal radiation.
Several children were judged to have received an equivalent lifetime dose to the thyroid.
But the government says it does not plan to notify the parents out of fear of creating anxiety.
First posted July 12, 2012 14:28:58