Oxygen tension in cells as a variable to radiation dose response

Nukers the world over pretend, while actually knowing otherwise, that different individuals have differing responses and effects from exposures to radiation. T(his is opening confirmed by scientific reports regarding the effects (cost/benefit in the medical setting) of internal emitters such as Sr89Cl. The medical reports for Sr89 Cl are copious and have been since the deliberate suppression of this 1942 treatment was breached by doctors in Germany in the 1970s. To them it was their discovery, but the AEC and DOE had known about it all the time). The dose response in this example is seen in various degrees of calcium flushing, temporary pain prior to longer term pain reduction in end of life bone cancer patients (the only people Sr89 may be legally administered to, despite what TEPCO may say, as it is, while a potent shrinker of existing bone tumors, a potent cause of bone tumours, hence its limited and palliative use. Another limit to dose of Sr89 is the individual variation of bone marrow ablation which occurs and which limits dose according to the individual. Though of course, as everyone knows, Sr89 causes less bone marrow ablation than P32.

So while the nukers pretend everyone who without consent or need who was exposed to, and is continued to be exposed to, fallout from the predicted (Lapp 1974) failure of the Fukushima nuclear plumbing and consequent multiple and design based explosions and mass release of radionuclides into the local and global environment (of no concern, if we are to believe those paid by the industry), there remains the question of the effects on individuals. Authorities state the effects will be uniform across populations. This is a lie.

As I have previously gone into some detail in earlier posts (posts which pre date March 2011), citing sources from 1945, 1946 and 1957 (Hiroshima doctors, Hersey and Alexander respectively) I will now cite current sources which introduce and explain the role of oxygen tension at the level of the cell as a variable in the effects of any given dose of radiation.

I will give the google search links for the papers found under the search terms “oxygen tension effects of radiation”. (a concept quite familiar to the experts who claim everyone in Japan and around the world will have the same effect from the doses received, a concept which proves they lie, and that of course ignores the fact of shielding factor variation, another lie. Politicians in Tokyo are far safer on both counts than farmers near the reactors, or people who are not of the elite, with access to the diet the wealthy can afford to import)

1. http://radiology.rsna.org/content/82/3/508.extract
Radiology High Oxygen Tension and Radiation Effect on the Kidney
Joseph P. Concannon, M.D., Roy E. Summers, M.S., Ruth Brewer, Carrol Weil, M.A. and David Hayeslip, M.D.
Department of Radiology The Allegheny General Hospital 320 East North Avenue Pittsburgh 12, Penna. doi:
10.1148/82.3.508
March 1964 Radiology, 82, 508-519.
Excerpt
“TISSUES THAT are well oxygenated have long been recognized as being more radiosensitive than those that are anoxic. Early experimental studies of the interaction between the tissue responses to irradiation and to oxygen were described by Crabtree and Cramer (1) and by Mottram (2). Read’s (3) investigation with the broad bean root indicated that radio-sensitivity increased sharply with increasing oxygen concentrations when that concentration was low….. The radiosensitivity of a variety of biological tissues has now been shown to depend upon the concentration of oxygen present during the time of irradiation.

The manner in which radiosensitivity varied with changes in oxygen pressure was described by Gray et al. (4) and by Gray (5)… From the Department of Radiology (J. P. C, R. E. S., R. B., C. W.) and the Department of Pathology, The Singer Memorial Research Laboratory (D. H.), The Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Penna.

This work was supported by U. S. Public Health Service Research Grant C5120.

Accepted November 1, 1963.
Copyrighted 1964 by the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. end quote. full paper available at the link.

2. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/41/3/751.abstract

JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Oxford JournalsMedicine JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst Volume 41, Issue 3Pp. 751-756.

Carcinogenic Properties of Increased Oxygen Tensions. I. Effects on Radiation-Induced Mammary Tumors2
Cornelia M. Dettmer, M.D.3, Simon Kramer, M.D., Sheldon F. Gottlieb, Ph.D.4 and Gonzalo E. Aponte, M.D.5,6
+ Author Affiliations

Division of Radiation Therapy, Jefferson Medical College Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107
Received February 23, 1968.
Accepted May 1, 1968.

ummary

It has been reported that exposure to increased oxygen concentrations will enhance the incidence of chemically induced tumors in the lungs of mice. Such effects of oxygen on neoplastic transformation are important in hyperbaric medicine and space programs. To investigate more fully the carcinogenic-enhancing properties of oxygen, we studied the relationship of increased oxygen tensions on radiation-induced mammary tumors in the female Sprague-Dawley rat. The animals were exposed to the following regimen 1 week after 400 rads whole-body irradiation: 1 hour daily, 5 consecutive days a week for 6 weeks to either 1 atmospheres absolute (ATA) air (Po2 152 mm Hg), 3 ATA air (Po2 456 mm Hg), 1 ATA oxygen (Po2 760 mm Hg), or 3 ATA oxygen (Po2 2280 mm Hg). The data indicate that increased oxygen tensions speed up the time of emergence of the primary tumors and enhance the incidence of tumors. Increases in the total number of tumors as well as the number of second tumors per animal were noted. The higher oxygen tensions produced no changes in location or histologic type of tumor. end quote.

3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18979321

Pub Med

Int J Radiat Biol. 2008 Oct;84(10):858-65. doi: 10.1080/09553000802389686.
Age-dependent changes in oxygen tension, radiation dose and sensitivity within normal and diseased coronary arteries-Part C: oxygen effect and its implications on high- and low-LET dose.
Richardson RB.
Source
Radiation Biology and Health Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. richardr@aecl.ca
Abstract
PURPOSE:
The aim is to study the implications of the decrease in oxygen concentration in the coronary artery walls with age and atherosclerosis, particularly with regard to an associated reduction in the radiosensitivity to high-and low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) irradiation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
In accompanying papers, the age-dependent morphology and composition for the wall layers of normal and diseased coronary arteries were developed in Part A from published data. In Part B, the oxygen concentration in the coronary artery walls was evaluated taking account the diffusion of oxygen from blood and the solubility of oxygen in tissues. In this part the oxygen effect was evaluated using published experimental data.
RESULTS:
Based on simulation results from the one-dimensional diffusion model, the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) is lower in the hypoxic vessel walls of aged and atherosclerotic arteries. Consequently the high-LET radiation damage arising from both the radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) decay chains to the intimal layer of highly diseased arteries was estimated to be reduced by approximately 37% due to hypoxia. A greater reduction in radiosensitivity (51%) due to hypoxia was determined for low-LET irradiation.
CONCLUSION:
These results imply that the oxygen effect, and other radiation biological factors, have a significant influence on radiation biological effects and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors and patients receiving radiotherapy of the mediastinum. end quote.

4. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7107373

Pub Med
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1982 Mar-Apr;8(3-4):491-4.
The combined effects of oxygen tension, X radiation and 5-thio-D-glucose on the survival of mammalian cells.
Schulz RJ, Bongiorni P.
Abstract
The glucose analogue 5-thio-D-glucose (5-TG) is toxic to hypoxic cells but does not affect aerated cells. Toxicity is markedly dependent upon oxygen tension: exposure of Chinese hamster cells to 5 mM 5-TG and 50 ppm O2 (in the overlying atmosphere) results in a survival of 0.01 in six hours, whereas increasing the oxygen to 100 ppm causes the survival to increase to about 0.9. The combined effect of X rays and 5-TG is to reduce the survival of hypoxic cells to a level far below that attainable with either agent alone. Cells made hypoxic with 5 ppm O2 have 0.1 survival after three hours exposure to 5 mM 5-TG. The same cells have a 0.5 survival when given a dose of 1000 rad. When the x-irradiation is given at the end of a three-hour exposure to 5-TG, the survival is reduced to 0.0055.
PMID: 7107373 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] end quote

5. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033756074902713

Radiation Botany
Volume 14, Issue 2, June 1974, Pages 101–107

Dependence of radiation sensitivity on oxygen tension in Oedogonium—II. Effect of temperature and LET
Alma Howard, C.W. Gilbert, D. Greene*
Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester M20 9BX, England
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0033-7560(74)90271-3, How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Permissions & Reprints
The value of K (the O2 concentration at which one-half of the oxygen-dependent radiation sensitivity is expressed) for two radiations of different LET was investigated in vegetative cells of the alga Oedogonium cardiacum. Oxygen concentration in the water surrounding the cells was controlled by gas bubbling before and during irradiation. From D0 values of survival curves, K for 300 kVp X-rays was estimated to be 17·6 ± 2·0 μM l−1. From survival values in air, N2 and 0·87% O2, K for 14 MeV neutrons was estimated to be 8·7 ± 3·8 μM l−1. At the same oxygen concentration the cells were more sensitive to X-rays at 0–1 °C than at room temperature by about 12 per cent. The change was the same in hypoxic and aerated conditions so that the oxygen enhancement ratio of 2·9 remained the same. The relation between OER and dissolved oxygen concentration was independent of the temperature.

There are no figures or tables for this document.

*
Physics Department, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester M20 9BX, England.
Copyright © 1974 Published by Elsevier Ltd. end quote full text 31 bucks.

6. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2458716?uid=3737536&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101528972371

Radiation induced pygnosis of chromosomes and its relation to oxygen tension (jpg image see link)

7. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3572711?uid=3737536&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101528972371

Radiation depigmentation of mouse hair : the influence of local tissue oxygen tension on Radiosensitivity. (jpg image see link)

8. Effect of Cell Concentration during Irradiation at Low Oxygen … – JStor
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3572439
The wide-spread demonstration of increased radiation effect with increased oxygen tension (“oxygen enhancement factor”) leads one to consider the possibility … jpg see original link

9. http://bjr.birjournals.org/content/26/312/638.extract

BJR British Journal of Radiology (1953) 26, 638-648
© 1953 British Institute of Radiology
doi: 10.1259/0007-1285-26-312-638
The Concentration of Oxygen Dissolved in Tissues at the Time of Irradiation as a Factor in Radiotherapy
L. H. Gray, M.A., Ph.D., A. D. Conger, Ph.D., M. Ebert, Dr. Rer. Nat., S. Hornsey, B.Sc. and O. C. A. Scott, M.B., B.Ch.
+ Author Affiliations

Radiotherapeutic Research Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London
Excerpt

The sensitivity of tumour cells to X rays has been shown to be about three times as great when irradiated in a well-oxygenated medium as under anoxic conditions. The manner in which sensitivity depends on oxygen tension closely resembles that found by other workers for plant and insect tissues. The sensitivity of the tumour cells to fast neutron radiation is only slightly affected by oxygen tension.

Consideration is given to the supply of oxygen to tissues as a factor in radiotherapy, and it is concluded on the basis of existing knowledge that in certain circumstances the effectiveness of X-ray treatment might be increased if the patient were breathing oxygen at the time of irradiation.

The Ehrlich ascites tumour cells used in the in vitro experiments were grown as a solid tumour and exposed to X rays while the mice were inhaling various mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen at 1 atmosphere pressure and above. In all cases, except when the tumour was very large at the time of irradiation, the regression produced by a given dose was greater when the inspired gas was oxygen than when it was air. The effect of oxygen treatment on the response of the tumour was much greater than on that of skin and hair, as would be expected if these tissues are normally well supplied with oxygen. In the most satisfactory experiment so far made, 1000 r administered to mice breathing oxygen at 1 atmosphere produced about the same tumour regression as 1500 r delivered to mice breathing air.

Cell degeneration produced by exposing chick fibroblasts to X rays in vitro showed a dependence on oxygen tension of the same general type as the tumour cells and other tissues, but the exact form of this relation between radiosensitivity and oxygen tension remains to be determined.

Two chemical model systems have been examined, and in one of them the amount of chemical change produced by a given dose of X rays was found to vary with the concentration of dissolved oxygen in a manner rather closely resembling the biological systems.

Reasons are given for believing that oxygen exerts an important influence on biological response by affecting the chemical changes produced directly in the cell by the radiation. We would like to emphasise that these investigations are still only at an early stage, but the information to hand seemed to us to show that the influence of oxygen tension as a factor in radiotherapy merits much fuller investigation.

It would not be possible, on the basis of our experiments, to predict that any particular human tumour would respond more favourably to X-ray treatment if the patient were breathing oxygen at the time of irradiation. We believe, however, that the possibility of substantial differential gain in effectiveness of the radiation with respect to tumour tissue relative to well-oxygenated normal tissue is inherent in any situation in which regions of partial anoxia occur in a human tumour.

Accepted for publication September 1953. end quotes

The point of all this science in the context of the assurances of safety issued by nuclear authorities in the wake of Fukushima mass reactor dispersal of radionuclides (unsealing of sources of which by law must remain sealed, such unsealing being due to negligent design, local and public statements, work practices and propaganda) is to show that dose response is individual for many factors, including oxygen tension in cells. This relates to oxygen concentration but also involves the rate of respiration and rate of metabolism – whether a person is at rest or at work and at what rate of work. The higher the rate of work, the greater the effect of radiation.

This I believe is of prime importance in the court cases being brought by victims of the Fukushima nuclear disaster and applies to nuclear victims everywhere. A politician asleep in the Diet during a session on nuclear cleanup is at far less risk than a farmer ploughing a contaminated field or a sailor scrubbing a deck or guiding a contaminated aircraft into land upon the contaminated flight deck of a US aircraft carrier.

The knowledge cited above is modern though much of it is decades old and well known by nuclear industry. No responsible radiologist would suggest a patient undergo diagnostic x ray while going their hardest on a treadmill. Quite to the contrary.

Some people seem to think I cite nuclear medicine to show the benefits of radiation in the treatment of illness. My main purpose in the context of non medical industrial pollution is to use the known costs to health of radiation as shown by the limits and costs of radiation as demonstrated by nuclear medicine. Where there is no illness, where there is no informed consent, exposure presents no benefits, only increased risk.

AND INCREASED RISK IS A HARM IN IT5ELF.

NUCLEAR INDUSTRY KNOWS THE TRUTH AND LIES, BY IMPLYING EVERYONE WILL SUFFER THE SAME EFFECT – ZERO EFFECT, WHEN IN FACT SCIENCE FOR DECADES HAS SHOWN MANY INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS TO DOSE RESPONSE AND DISEASE GENESIS EXIST.

THIS HAS NEVER BEEN EXPLAINED TO THE JAPANESE PEOPLE BY JAPANESE AUTHORITIES WHO MERELY STATE FALSELY THAT IT IS SAFE TO EAT TO PLUTONIUM AND THAT BANANAS MEAN REACTORS ARE GOOD FOR YOU. Its all crap.

There is another side issue which comes from the enhanced harm from radiation caused by increased radiation tension at the level of the cell.

Many pro nukers claim radiation was important in the evolution of life and that therefore it is important to increase background radiation via nuclear industry.

In fact, the early earth atmosphere contained no oxygen gas at all. Being highly reactive, the oxygen was chemically bound to the elements which make up the earth (iron etc). Atmospheric oxygen did not arise until after life arose. The first life forms did not have oxygen based metabolism. In fact oxygen in fact was toxic to these lifeforms (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobic_organism)
These organisms, not having an oxygen based metabolism were (and are – they still exist in soil etc) highly insensitive to the earth’s initially high background radiation.

Millions of years passed, and the modern earth atmosphere, composed in part by free oxygen farted by anaerobic lifeforms and, later, plants. By the time mammals arose, the background radiation of the earth had fallen dramatically, as had cosmic radiation, due to the effect of oxygen – radiation reactions in the atmosphere. (which none the less produces some natural fallout products). Of all the species on the planet, mammals are the most radiosensitive, and this radio sensitivity arises from their (our) oxygen based metabolism. The harder you work, the more physical your job, the greater the risk experienced due to Fukushima fallout. One manifestation of this increased risk is increased fatigue.

Those who claim nuclear pollution is needed for health are either ignorant or liars. Such a defence of the mandatory need for increased exposure was used by the US government against its nuclear veterans. In the end, science prevailed against those advocates of nuclear fallout, those whose jobs depended upon the generation of nuclear fallout. Such as TEPCO and Bechtel today. DOE still peddles this incorrect fact. In the 1950s hibernating European bats where exposed to radiation doses of LD 100 and more. All the bats survived until they awoke from their hibernation. They survived until they had eaten their first meal and then they all died from the effects of radiation. (Alexander, 1957, London).

Those foolish Japanese and other “nuclear experts” who claim “Happy people do not get sick from radiation” are knowingly making an abortion of the fact of that risk from radiation is related to oxygen tension which is related to rate of work and respiration. Panic increases risk, increased sleep reduces it. But by not explaining the facts, and using cartoon bullshit, Japanese authorities and others have rendered populations more vulnerable, not less.

Relax like a seasoned soldier going into battle invokes a drilled response of alert meditation and reduce the demands placed upon your body. Happiness has nothing to do with it. Exposure and rate of work does.

Those of contrary views will throw decades old bullshit at the sailors who have taken Tepco and JGov to court. It is important to understand that increased risk is a harm in itself, and that those who work the hardest physically in the open are at most risk.

The politicians, thus being safe, apparently dont give a shit about the truth and continue to lie.

Capt D I have explained this as best I can here, and have earlier explained it to Brett. It is important the sailors and everyone else understand it, for it is I believe a significant factor in the pending court case.

2 Responses to “Oxygen tension in cells as a variable to radiation dose response”

  1. CaptD Says:

    Salute
    I will spread the news and suggest that you also email this info to the lawyers handling the case…

  2. Brett Burnard Stokes Says:

    Good work Paul, thanks.

Comments are closed.


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