Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Dec;105 Suppl 6:1529-32.
Incidence of childhood disease in Belarus associated with the Chernobyl accident.
Lomat L, Galburt G, Quastel MR, Polyakov S, Okeanov A, Rozin S.
Belarus Center for Medical Technologies, Minsk, Republic of Belarus. email@example.com
Study of the childhood incidence of cancer and other diseases in Belarus is of great importance because of the present unfavorable environmental situation. About 20% of the children in the republic were exposed in various degrees to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Since 1987 increases in the incidence of most classes of disease have been reported, including the development of thyroid cancer. From 1987 to 1995, thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 424 children; its incidence having increased from 0.2 to 4.0/10(5) in 1995. According to preliminary data for 1996, 81 childhood cancer cases were reported. During 1995 there also were increases in the incidence of endocrine and dermatologic diseases and mental disorders.
During the period 1987 to 1995 significant increases in the incidences of all illnesses were observed for children listed in the Chernobyl registry. The highest incidence rates were found in evacuated children and those residing in contaminated areas. There also were increased incidences of thyroid and digestive organ diseases among these children and in addition, high prevalence of chronic tonsillitis and adenoiditis was observed. Since 1990 an increase of autoimmune thyroiditis has been observed. The highest rates of hematopoietic tissue diseases were found in children born after the accident to irradiated parents.
PMID:9467077 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC1469956 end quote.
http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&ved=0CD4QFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.chernobyl-international.org%2Fdocuments%2Fchernobylfacts2.pdf&ei=cnl2UerXI4WZiQec_4GABQ&usg=AFQjCNEDmXdBmP2fL6LicUrswPU4F6H58w&bvm=bv.45512109,d.aGc pdf download.
Chernobyl Children’s Project International
Chernobyl: The Facts
What You Need to Know Almost 20 Years After the Disaster
In the early morning hours of 26 April 1986, a testing error caused an explosion at the
Chernobyl nuclear power station in northern Ukraine. During a radioactive fire that
burned for 10 days, 190 tons of toxic materials were expelled into the atmosphere. The
wind blew 70% of the radioactive material into the neighboring country of Belarus.
Almost 20 years later, the people of Belarus continue to suffer medically, economically,
environmentally and socially from the effects of the disaster. These are the facts:
• The Chernobyl power plant is located on the border area between Ukraine and
• The explosion of the reactor at Chernobyl released 100 times more radiation than the
atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (1)
• At the time of the accident, about 7 million people lived in contaminated territories,
including 3 million children.
• About 5.5 million people – including more than a million children – continue to live
in contaminated zones. (2)
Radiation and Health
A common misconception is that only about 31 people died as a result of the Chernobyl
disaster. In order to understand the full extent of the health impact of the Chernobyl disaster, we have to understand two types of exposure to radiation.
1) Acute Exposure is a high dose of radiation over a short period of time.
Approximately 134 power station workers were exposed to extremely high doses of radiation directly after the accident. About 31 of these people died within 3
months. Another 25,000 “liquidators” – the soldiers and firefighters who were involved in clean up operations – have died since the disaster of diseases such as
lung cancer, leukemia, and cardiovascular disease.
2) Long Term Exposure refers to various lower doses of radiation that result in tumors, genetic mutations, and damage to the immune system. In the case of Chernobyl, millions of people will continue to be exposed to such doses of radiation for decades to come.
The unstable radioactive elements iodine-131, caesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium- 239 do their damage when they are spread via inhaled dust particles, deposited in the
earth by rainfall, or enter the food change through plants and animals. When the human body is exposed to these elements, free radicals impair cellular function and may damage DNA. The cells of the embryo, lymphatic system, thyroid, bone marrow, intestines, breast and eggs are very vulnerable to the effects of radiation.
Health Impact: What We Know So Far
Only with the passage of time, and additional research, will we understand the extent of the impact of the Chernobyl disaster on the health of those in the affected regions.
Experts disagree on how many of the following problems are specifically caused by radiation, and also recognize that poverty, poor diet, lifestyles – and even fear of
radiation – are contributing factors to the health problems seen in Chernobyl affected regions. Programs designed to help Chernobyl affected populations medically need to
focus on all potential causes of poor health.
* Thyroid Cancer: Thyroid cancer in children has increased since the disaster, particularly in the Gomel region of Belarus. The World Health Organization predicts that,
in this region, 50,000 children will develop the disease during their lifetime. Throughout Belarus, the incidence of this rare disease in 1990 was 30 times higher than in the years before the accident. (3)
• Leukemia: In the Gomel region of Belarus, incidence of leukemia has increased 50% in children and adults. (4)
• Other Diseases in Children: In addition to thyroid cancer and leukemia, UNICEF reports that between 1990 and 1994, nervous system disorders increased by 43%;
cardiovascular diseases by 43%; bone and muscle disorders by 62%; and diabetes by 28%. UNICEF cautioned that it is difficult to prove whether these increases
were caused by radiation or another unknown factor.
• Other Cancers: Swiss Medical Weekly recently published findings showing a 40% increase in all kinds of cancers in Belarus between 1990 and 2000. (5) Some tumor specialists fear that a variety of new cancers may emerge 20-30 years after the disaster. (6) Cases of breast cancer doubled between 1988 and 1999. (7)
• Birth Defects: Maternal exposure to radiation can cause severe organ and brain damage in an unborn child. Five years after the disaster, the Ukrainian Ministry
of Health reported three times the normal rate of deformities and developmental abnormalities in newborn children, as well as in increased number of
miscarriages, premature births, and stillbirths. (4)
• Genetic Mutations: Hereditary defects in Belarusian newborns increased in the years after the disaster. (8) Scientists have observed that congenital and hereditary defects have passed on to the next generation, as young people exposed to radiation grow up and have their own children. (9)
• Cardiac Abnormalities: Heart disease in Belarus has quadrupled since the accident, caused by the accumulation of radioactive caesium in the cardiac muscle. (10) Doctors report a high incidence of multiple defects of the heart – a condition coined “Chernobyl Heart.”
Environment and Food
Large families in rural areas – people who farm and collect their food – continue to receive large doses of radiation from the food supply. Tragically, these people will need
to change their traditional ways forever in order to preserve their own health. (11)
• Soil: Twenty-one percent of prime Belarusian farmland remains contaminated from the decaying components of plutonium. (11)
• Groundwater: Radiation concentrated in sediments at the bottoms of lakes and ponds – the population continues to contaminate itself by fishing there. The
average concentration of radionuclides in the groundwater has risen 10- to 100-
• Air: Although the air outside the Exclusion Zone is generally safe, plowing, summer forest fires, and wind erosion continue to put the air at risk. (12)
• Food: The food and water supply is continuously contaminated by rainfall and by the movement of radioactive dust. Mushrooms – a national disk of Belarus –
are severely contaminated in half the country but still collected and eaten. Livestock such as cattle and goats accumulate radioactivity in their meat and
• Belarus was once a thriving agricultural community, as part of the “breadbasket” of the former Soviet Union.
• The economic damages to Belarus after the accident over 30 years (1986 – 2015) will be $235 billion, or over 32 annual national budgets. (11)
• The Belarusian economy has suffered loss of agricultural land, mineral resources, and production.
• Loss of a Culture: After the Chernobyl accident, almost 400,000 were forced to leave their homes for their own safety – homes and villages that had been part of
their families for generations. Over 2,000 towns and villages were bulldozed the ground, and hundreds more stand eerily silent.
• Fear and Uncertainty: Many Belarusian live in fear, uncertain about the extent to which their health and that of their children is at risk and not knowing where to
turn for accurate information. This natural fear is exacerbated by the fact that the extent of the accident was not openly disclosed for many years. “Radiophobia”
makes it hard for many in the community to move on with their lives and help
(1) Green Cross: CD: Guide to Chernobyl consequences in Belarus, Minsk, 2001, introduction
(2) UNDP/UNICEF: The Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident, January 2002
(3) Lengfelder, Edmund: 14 Jahre nach Tschernobyl/2000
(4) Otto Hug Strahleninstitut: Informationen, Ausgabe 9/2001 K, 2001
(5) A.E. Okeanov / E.Y. Sosnovskaya / O.P. Priatkina: A national cancer registry to assess trends after the
Chernobyl accident, Swiss Medical Weekly, Basel, 2004
(6) Garnets, Oxana; Tschenobylexpert at UNDP Kiev: Interview, Kiev, 26.02.2002, p. 2.
(7) European Commission, OCHA et. al., International Conference: Fifteen Years after the Chernobyl Accident.
Lesson Learned. Executive Summary, Kiev, April 2001, p. 10
(8) Lazuk, GI: Study of possible genetic impact of the Chernobyl accident using Belarus national registry of of
congenital malformations, Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk.
(9) Yuri E. Dubrova: Monitoring of radiation-induced germline mutation in humans, Swiss Medical Weekly,
2003, 133: 474-478
(10) Y. Bandazhevsky: Chronic Cs-137 incorporation in children”s organ, Swiss Medical Weekly, 2003, 133:488-
(11) Committee on the Problems of the Consequences of the Catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP: Interview,
(12) Hartung, Arno: Okologische Auswirkungen des Reaktorunglucks von Tschernobyl in Weissrussland, Europa
Regional, 4. Jg. 1986, Nr. 2, p.33
Source: Chernobyl.info, a partnership of the United Nations and the Swiss Agency for
Development and Cooperation.
Chernobyl Children’s Project International
Chernobyl Children’s Project International provides medical, humanitarian and community development programs designed to provide hope to the youngest and most
vulnerable victims of the Chernobyl disaster of 1986 – the children. The United Nations recognizes that 3-4 million children were affected by the disaster. The people of Belarus continue to suffer medically, economically, and socially.
Chernobyl Children’s Project International (CCPI) was started in Ireland 14 years ago. In 2002, the organization was established in the United States to continue to alleviate the suffering of children in the region. CCPI was featured in the film Chernobyl Heart.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org 217 East 86th Street, PMB #275, New York NY 10028
Video, full text at the above link.
“Revisiting Chernobyl: A Nuclear Disaster Site of Epic Proportions” May 2011
MILES O’BRIEN: Helicopters finally smothered the fire with sand, clay, boron, lead, and liquid nitrogen. Eventually, 600,000 Soviet army conscripts were dispatched to Chernobyl to shovel the lethal mess back into the remnants of the reactor, so that it could be encased in steel and concrete.
VASYL KAVATSIUK, Chernobyl liquidator: Our job was to put the radioactive material back…
MILES O’BRIEN: I see.
VASYL KAVATSIUK: … to the reactor, yes.
MILES O’BRIEN: I see. So, then — so they could cover it over?
VASYL KAVATSIUK: That’s exactly right.
MILES O’BRIEN: So you — you were in very close proximity to this stuff?
VASYL KAVATSIUK: Cannot be closer.
MILES O’BRIEN: They called them liquidators. And Vasyl Kavatsiuk was one of them. A demolition expert, he spent 37 days working at the wrecked reactor.
VASYL KAVATSIUK: If you think about that, you are getting more sick more than you’re supposed to be. You are just thinking I have to do this. This is my job. I have to finish this. I have to do this. Anybody — anyhow, somebody must do that.
MILES O’BRIEN: Until he collapsed and had to be medevaced to Moscow. His wife, Maria, gave birth to a girl, Marta, in 1987. Just shy of her second birthday, she died suddenly of leukemia. In 1989, they had another daughter, Maria. She too contracted leukemia, but survived.
Is there a lot of cancer in your family?
VASYL KAVATSIUK: Never had one.
MILES O’BRIEN: Never?
VASYL KAVATSIUK: Never.
MILES O’BRIEN: Is there any doubt in your mind that the leukemia your two daughters had, had something to do with Chernobyl?
VASYL KAVATSIUK: I have no doubt about that.
MILES O’BRIEN: Pripyat was just one of 150 towns and settlements evacuated after the accident. More than 300,000 people were displaced, while a few hundred stubborn holdouts remain on their land, people like Maria, who, at 75, says she is more worried about her cottage falling down than radiation.
Children are the most vulnerable to the effects of radiation. After the explosion, there was a big spike in birth defects and thyroid cancer, extremely rare among children. And researchers say there is also a significant drop in the intellect in the region.
At the dilapidated regional hospital closest to Chernobyl, the medical staff is convinced there is a direct link between chronic exposure to radiation and a whole assortment of diseases and deformities.
I asked Dr. Constantine Cheres if he is convinced people are more sick here because of the Chernobyl accident. “Of course,” he told me. “Of course they are more sick.”
But the Chernobyl Forum, a group of U.N. agencies focused on the accident, estimates only 4,000 people died as a result of the explosion and its aftermath. One of the four members, the U.N. Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, issued a report contending: “There is no clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers or leukemia due to radiation in the exposed populations. Neither is there any proof of any non-malignant disorders that are related to ionizing radiation. However, there were widespread psychological reactions to the accident, which were due to fear of the radiation, not the actual radiation doses.”
But Ukrainian scientist Maryna Naboka begs to differ. She told me people here get sick more often and they become more seriously sick. They receive little doses of radiation, but they do it on a day-to-day basis, and the second generation continues getting the radiation.
MILES O’BRIEN: Milinevsky’s colleague, Tim Mousseau, believes animals are the key to settling the debate over the long-term health effects of Chernobyl. He and his team have spent more than a decade studying birds in the Chernobyl region and beyond.
TIMOTHY MOUSSEAU, University of South Carolina: But it’s clear that this low-level contamination is — is probably more dangerous in the long run than — than having a single hot spot.
MILES O’BRIEN: In contaminated areas, there are half as many species and one-third number of birds you would expect. Their brains are smaller. Forty percent of male barn swallows have abnormal sperm. One in five have strange colored plumage that makes it hard to attract mates.
There are unusual beak deformities and large tumors that scientists have never seen before. What, if anything, can we extrapolate between that bird population, that population of barn swallows, and humans?
TIMOTHY MOUSSEAU: I would argue that, you know, we’re all — we’re all animals, and birds are actually more similar to us than dissimilar to us.
MILES O’BRIEN: Mousseau’s colleagues are also looking at Chernobyl’s grasshoppers. They frequently have asymmetrical wings, and fruit flies, which are easily impacted by radiation. Those found around Chernobyl have gray eyes, instead of red, and deformed wings.
Biologist Irina Koretsky studies the little bugs, in part because they only live about a month, meaning she can track genetic changes through many generations in short order. She worries about the sporadic funding for research that could lead to some definitive answers about the Chernobyl riddle.
She told me: “This is the worst thing that can happen. If there are gaps in the research for two or three years, we cannot have this full picture.” end quote. This is a partial quote only of the PBS NewsHour report. See full text at the link above.
“A paper published by the Chernobyl Ministry in Ukraine registered a multiplication of the cases of disease of the endocrine system (25-fold from 1987 to 1992), the
nervous system (6-fold), the circulatory system (44-fold), the digestive organs (60- fold), the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue (50 times higher), the muscular-skeletal system and psychological dysfunctions (53-fold). The number of healthy people among evacuees sank from 1987 to 1996 from 59 % to 18%. Among the population of the
contaminated areas from 52% to 21% and –particularly dramatic – among the children who were not directly affected themselves by Chernobyl fallout but their parents were exposed to high levels of radiation, the numbers of healthy children sank from 81% to 30% in 1996.
19. It has been reported for several years that type I diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) has risen sharply amongst children and adolescents.
20. Non-cancerous diseases greatly outnumber the more spectacular cases of leukaemia and cancer. ” Source: Health Effects of Chernobyl 25 years after the reactor catastrophe” IPPNW. German Affliate of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, April 2011. pdf download http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=14&cad=rja&ved=0CEMQFjADOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.chernobylcongress.org%2Ffileadmin%2Fuser_upload%2Fpdfs%2Fchernob_report_2011_en_web.pdf&ei=JoN2UefuDbGuiQfL5IHICA&usg=AFQjCNE4iJS1UUYn-xFssvR7dCNtG0gZCw
The Chernobyl Catastrophe Consequences for Human Health
Extract from Executive Summary: “….The range of estimates of excess mortality resulting from the Chernobyl accident spans an extremely wide range depending upon precisely what is taken into account. The most recent epidemiological evidence, published under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences, suggests that the scale of the problems could be very much greater than predicted by studies published to date. For example, the 2005 IAEA report predicted that 4,000 additional deaths would result from the Chernobyl accident. The most recently
published figures indicate that in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine alone the accident resulted in an estimated 200,000 additional deaths between 1990 and 2004.
Overall, the available data reveal a considerable range in estimated excess mortalities resulting from the Chernobyl accident, serving to underline the huge uncertainties attached to knowledge of the full impacts of the Chernobyl
accident…..Non-Cancer Illnesses The identified changes in the incidence of cancerous diseases reported from studies of populations exposed to radiation arising from the Chernobyl accident are only one aspect of the range of health impacts reported. In addition, significant increases in non-cancer illnesses amongst the exposed populations have also been reported although, despite the scale of the exposure, relatively very few studies are available.
Despite difficulties in deriving absolute cause-effect relationships and the relative paucity of data given the substantial international impact of the Chernobyl release, the various reports are enough to make it quite clear that
morbidity and mortality based only on projected and observed changes in cancerous disease rates amongst these populations could considerably underestimate the full scope and scale of the impacts upon human health.” See full text for discussion and findings relating to diseases of the following organs and systems:
Blood Vascular System
Musculo–Skeletal and Cutaneous Systems
Abnormalities of Immune Function
Genetic Abnormalities & Chromosomal Aberrations
Urogenital and Reproductive System
Neurological and Psychological Disorders
Clearly the overall body of evidence concerning human health impacts of the radiation released by the Chernobyl accident is highly diverse and complex but of great significance. Many of the features of the accident and its consequences, such as uncertainty regarding totalquantities of radionuclides released, uneven distribution of radioactivity, concomitant and sequential effects of multiple radioisotope exposures, as well as limitations in medical monitoring, diagnosing, forecasting and treating diseases, make it altogether unique, thus rendering many previously applied standards and methods inapplicable. Complete evaluation of the human health consequences of the
Chernobyl accident is therefore likely to remain an almost impossible task, such that the true extent of morbidity and mortality resulting may never be fully appreciated.
At the same time, however, this sheer range of health impacts described, combined with the variety of ways in which they have been detected and quantified, underscore the need for any proper evaluation to consider all
available data and to reflect the diversity of both lethal and non-lethal effects.
Any description which attempts to present the consequences as a single, ‘easy to understand’ estimation of excess cancer deaths (such as the figure of 4 000 much publicised by bodies such as the IAEA during 2005) will therefore
inevitably provide a gross oversimplification of the breadth of human suffering experienced. Moreover, much of the evidence presented in the current report indicates that such figures may also greatly underestimate the scale of impacts as outlined earlier in the text.
Many uncertainties remain. In particular there are still very few estimates of non-cancer mortalities attributed to Chernobyl, while long latency periods for development of cancers (in some cases greater than 40 years) inevitably mean that new cases are likely to emerge well in to the future. The health impacts on the children of the exposed are evident and will continue throughout their
lifetimes, and possibly through those of their own children The substantial gaps in available data, combined with some large discrepancies between estimates for incidences and excesses of certain cancers and other diseases,
prevent any single, robust and verifiable assessment of overall human health consequences from being performed, leaving fundamental questions unanswered. ” end partial quote.
“Half-Lives and Healthy Bodies: Discourses on ‘Contaminated’ Foods and Healing in Post-ChernobylUkraine.” Sarah D. Phillips Associate Professor of Anthropology, Indiana University, Food and Foodways 10(1-2): 27-53. http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/FOF-sp-issue.pdf
““We’ll never know what real damage Chernobyl has wrought,” said Ludmila, a doctor at Kyiv’s Clinic of the Radiation Register, where the bodies of Chernobyl victims are examined, scanned, and evaluated on a yearly basis.
“Chernobyl is like a big experiment, and all of us are reluctant lab rats.”
Fifteen years ago, on April 26,1986, an accident at the V. I. Lenin Nuclear Power Plant at Chernobyl, Ukraine, resulted in the release of millions of curies of radionuclides such as iodine-131, cesium-137, and strontium-90 (Chernousenko 1991:viii). In Ukraine, over 90 million acres of land—14 percent of the country’s total area—were contaminated with radioactive cesium-137, with contamination levels ranging from over one curie per square
kilometer to more than 15 curies per square kilometer (Page et al. 1995:143; Marples 1993;3). “Fourteen years
after the nuclear accident, intake of radionuclides is almost exclusively a result of drinking contaminated water and milk and eating foods grown in contaminated soil.3 According to the Soviet-era data of the radiological sec-
tion of the sanitary epidemiological department (Rus. sanepidstantsiia),4 during the last two-thirds of 1986 (that is, after Chernobyl), in the Ukrainian S.S.R. levels of strontium-90 in foodstuffs rose significantly from 1985
levels. Levels rose significantly in staples of the Ukrainian diet: nine times in milk and nearly four times in wheat bread and potatoes (Knizhnikov et al. 1988:69).5 It was concluded that the average citizen’s daily intake of
cesium-137 and cesium-134 after Chernobyl increased seventy times over.” “In Ukraine, long-term low-dose radiation exposure is blamed for a great number if illnesses and deleterious health conditions. Cancer is the most
obvious of these, especially thyroid cancer, whose incidence has increased at least ten-fold since the Chernobyl accident (Shcherbak 1996:47-48). Intake
of radionuclides is said to leach the bones of calcium, making the exposed person more susceptible to fractures and breaks.9 Accelerated aging is also blamed on the nuclear accident (Akhaladze, Ena, and Chayalo 1997; Akhaladze 1998),10 as are a large number of digestive, circulatory, and respira- tory problems. Studies have associated long-term low-dose radiation exposure among children living in contaminated territories with chronic respira-
tory infections; illnesses of the tonsils and adenoids; diseases of the oral cavity, liver, and pancreas; and pathologies of the blood and blood forming
organs, especially iron-deficiency anemia (Nahorna et al. 1998). Many in Ukraine complain of a general weakening of the organism and its capacity to fight disease, an anomalous condition referred to as “radiation AIDS.” A similar condition among children in particular is called “Chernobyl syndrome.” (Knizhnikov, et al. 1988:70).
Ukrainian researchers claim that the effects of ingesting radionuclides are made worse due to the high-stress environment in which many Ukrainians live today. Such stress is largely a result of the country’s continuous
socioeconomic crises and the pervasive mood of uncertainty about the future. The joint effects of radiation and intense stress, some medical experts assert, compromise the organism’s immune, nervous, and endocrine sys-
tems, making post-Chernobyl bodies ready conduits for chronic illness and disease (Institute for Experimental Radiology 1998:4).
Since it is extremely difficult to link a specific illness directly to Chernobyl, the disaster’s role as an etiological factor in all of these health problems is,
of course, contested. People in positions of power have used references to “radiophobia” to discredit citizens’ claims that their health problems are Chernobyl-related. Such accusations emphasize the “psychological” effects
of the disaster while minimizing the perception of health effects. The fact remains, however, that post-Chernobyl eating can pose risks to health. In the following case study, I trace one family’s Chernobyl-related food expe-
riences since 1986. Many people in Ukraine, I found, have resigned themselves to the radiation exposure inherent in consuming post-Chernobyl foodstuffs. On the other hand, some persons, even in contexts of near destitution,
may take up specific food strategies to decrease the dangers of post-Chernobyl eating.” “Ludmila told me, “I am continually amazed by how old Chernobyltsi look. The radiation has aged them prematurely. Just the other
day a middle-aged woman came in with all kinds of health problems. But the thing is I just thought she was middle-aged. I couldn’t believe it when she told me she was only seventeen!” ” S.D. Phillips 2002.
University of South Carolina Chernobyl Research Initiative
Fukushima Research Initiative.
CRI Publications related to chernobyl
Most Recent Publications: Møller, A.P. and T.A. Mousseau. 2013. The effects of low-dose radiation: Soviet science, the nuclear industry – and independence? Significance 10(1): 14-19. Møller, A.P. and T.A. Mousseau. 2012. The effects of natural variation in background radioactivity on humans, animals and other organisms. Biological Reviews, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2012.00249.x. Møller, A.P. and T.A. Mousseau. 2013. Assessing effects of radiation on abundance of mammals and predator-prey interactions in Chernobyl using tracks in the snow. Ecological Indicators 26: 112-116. Møller, A.P., I. Nishiumi, H. Suzuki, K. Ueda, and T.A. Mousseau. 2013. Differences in effects of radiation on abundance of animals in Fukushima and Chernobyl. Ecological Indicators, 24:75-81. (pdf) Møller, A.P., Hagiwara, A., Matsui, S., Kasahara, S., Kawatsu, K., Nishiumi, I., Suzuki, H., Ueda, K., Mousseau, T.A. 2012. Abundance of birds at Fukushima as judged from Chernobyl. Environmental Pollution, 164, 36-39. Møller, A.P., F. Barnier, and T.A. Mousseau. 2012. Ecosystem effects 25 years after Chernobyl: pollinators, fruit set, and recruitment. Oecologia 170: 1155-1165 (DOI 10.1007/s00442-012-2374-0) Mousseau, T.A., Møller, A.P. 2012. Chernobyl and Fukushima: Differences and similarities, a biological perspective. Asian Perspective, in press. Beasley, D.A.E., A. Bonisoli-Alquati, S.M. Welch, A. P. Møller, T.A. Mousseau. 2012. Effects of parental radiation exposure on developmental instability in grasshoppers (Chorthippus albomarginatus). Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25: 1149-1162. Mousseau, T.A., Møller, A.P. 2012. Chernobyl and Fukushima: Differences and similarities, a biological perspective. Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 107: 200-203. Mousseau, T.A., Møller, A.P. 2012. Entomological studies in Chernobyl and Fukushima. American Entomologist 58: 148-150. Møller, A.P., A. Bonisoli-Alquati, G. Rudolfsen, T.A. Mousseau. 2012. Elevated mortality among birds in Chernobyl as judged from biased sex and age ratios. PLoS One, 7(4): e35223. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035223 Svendsen, E.R., J.R.Runkly, V.R. Dhara, S.Lin, M.Naboka, T.A. Mousseau and C. Bennett. 2012. Epidemiologic methods lessons learned from environmental public health disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(8): 2894-2909 (doi:10.3390/ijerph9082894). Population and Community Effects: Møller, A.P. and T.A. Mousseau. 2013. Assessing effects of radiation on abundance of mammals and predator-prey interactions in Chernobyl using tracks in the snow. Ecological Indicators 26: 112-116. Møller, A.P., I. Nishiumi, H. Suzuki, K. Ueda, and T.A. Mousseau. 2013. Differences in effects of radiation on abundance of animals in Fukushima and Chernobyl. Ecological Indicators, 24:75-81. (pdf) Møller, A.P., Hagiwara, A., Matsui, S., Kasahara, S., Kawatsu, K., Nishiumi, I., Suzuki, H., Ueda, K., Mousseau, T.A. 2012. Abundance of birds at Fukushima as judged from Chernobyl. Environmental Pollution, 164, 36-39. Møller, A.P., A. Bonisoli-Alquati, G. Rudolfsen, T.A. Mousseau. 2012. Elevated mortality among birds in Chernobyl as judged from biased sex and age ratios. PLoS One, 7(4): e35223. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035223 Mousseau, T.A., and A.P. Møller. 2011. Landscape portrait: A look at the impacts of radioactive contaminants on Chernobyl’s wildlife. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 67(2): 38-46. (DOI: 10.1177/0096340211399747) Møller, A. P. and T.A. Mousseau. 2010. Efficiency of bio-indicators for low-level radiation under field conditions. Ecological Indicators, doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.06.013 (pdf) Møller, A.P., and T.A. Mousseau. 2009. Reduced abundance of insects and spiders linked to radiation at Chernobyl 20 years after the accident. Biology Letters of the Royal Society 5(3): 356-359. (pdf) Møller, A.P., T.A Mousseau. 2007. Species richness and abundance of forest birds in relation to radiation at Chernobyl. Biology Letters of the Royal Society, 3: 483-486. (pdf) Møller, A.P., T.A Mousseau. 2007. Determinants of Interspecific Variation in Population Declines of Birds after Exposure to Radiation at Chernobyl. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44: 909-919. (pdf) Møller, A. P., and T.A. Mousseau. 2011. Conservation consequences of Chernobyl and other nuclear accidents. Biological Conservation, 144:2787-2798. Møller, A. P., T.A Mousseau. 2008. Reduced abundance of raptors in radioactively contaminated areas near Chernobyl. Journal of Ornithology, 150(1):239-246. (pdf) Galvan, I., T.A. Mousseau, and A.P. Møller. 2010. Bird population declines due to radiation exposure at Chernobyl are stronger in species with pheomelanin-based colouration. Oecologia, doi:10.1007/s00442-010-1860-5 Møller, A.P., J. Erritzoe, F. Karadas, and T. A. Mousseau. 2010. Historical mutation rates predict susceptibility to radiation in Chernobyl birds. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02074.x (pdf) Czirjak, G.A., A.P. Møller, T.A. Mousseau, P. Heeb. 2010. Micro-organisms associated with feathers of barn swallows in radioactively contaminated areas around Chernobyl. Microbial Ecology 60:373-380 (DOI: 10.1007/s00248-010-9716-4). (pdf) Møller, A.P., T. A. Mousseau. 2006. Biological consequences of Chernobyl: 20 years after the disaster. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21: 200-207. (pdf) Møller, A.P., K. A. Hobson, T. A. Mousseau and A. M. Peklo. 2006. Chernobyl as a population sink for barn swallows: Tracking dispersal using stable isotope profiles. Ecological Applications, 16:1696-1705. (pdf) Møller, A.P., T. A. Mousseau, G. Milinevsky, A. Peklo, E. Pysanets and T. Szép. 2005. Condition, reproduction and survival of barn swallows from Chernobyl. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74: 1102-1111. (pdf) Møller, A.P. and T.A. Mousseau. 2011. Rigorous methodology for studies of effects of radiation from Chernobyl on animals and humans. Biology Letters of the Royal Society. Developmental Abnormalities (Birth Defects, Visible Mutations, Morphological Effects): Møller, A. P., A. Bonisoli-Alquati, G. Rudolfsen, and T.A. Mousseau. 2011. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains. PLoS One 6(2): e16862. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016862 (pdf) Møller, A.P., T.A. Mousseau, F. de Lope, and N. Saino. 2007. Elevated frequency of abnormalities in barn swallows from Chernobyl. Biology Letters of the Royal Society, 3: 414-417. (pdf) Møller, A.P., T. A. Mousseau. 2006. Biological consequences of Chernobyl: 20 years after the disaster. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21: 200-207. (pdf) Møller, A. P., Surai, P., and T. A. Mousseau. 2004. Antioxidants, radiation and mutations in barn swallows from Chernobyl. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, 272: 247-252. (pdf) Møller, A. P., and T. A. Mousseau. 2003. Mutation and sexual selection: A test using barn swallows from Chernobyl. Evolution, 57: 2139-2146. (pdf) Møller, A. P. 2002. Developmental instability and sexual selection in stag beetles from Chernobyl and a control area. – Ethology 108:193-204. Møller, A. P. and T. A. Mousseau . 2001. Albinism and phenotype of barn swallow of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from Chernobyl. Evolution, 55: 2097-2104. (pdf) Møller, A. P. 1993. Morphology and sexual selection in the barn swallow Hirundo rustica in Chernobyl, Ukraine. – Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 252:51-57. Genetic, Mutational, and Developmental Effects: Møller, A.P. and T.A. Mousseau. 2012. The effects of natural variation in background radioactivity on humans, animals and other organisms. Biological Reviews, doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2012.00249.x. Beasley, D.A.E., A. Bonisoli-Alquati, S.M. Welch, A. P. Møller, T.A. Mousseau. 2012. Effects of parental radiation exposure on developmental instability in grasshoppers (Chorthippus albomarginatus). Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25: 1149-1162. Møller, A. P., and T.A. Mousseau. 2011. Conservation consequences of Chernobyl and other nuclear accidents. Biological Conservation, 144:2787-2798. Bonisoli-Alquati, A., A.P. Møller., G. Rudolfsen, N. Saino, M. Caprioloi, S. Ostermiller, T.A. Mousseau. 2011. The effects of radiation on sperm swimming behavior depend on plasma oxidative status in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part A – Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 159: 105-112 (DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.01.018) Møller, A.P., J. Erritzoe, F. Karadas, and T. A. Mousseau. 2010. Historical mutation rates predict susceptibility to radiation in Chernobyl birds. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02074.x (pdf) Bonisoli-Alquati, A., , A. Voris, T. A. Mousseau, A. P. Møller, N. Saino, and M. Wyatt. 2009. DNA damage in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from the Chernobyl region detected by the use of the Comet assay. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, in press. (pdf) Bonisoli-Alquati, A., T. A. Mousseau, A. P. Møller, M. Caprioli, and N. Saino. 2009. Increased oxidative stress in barn swallows from the Chernobyl region. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, in press. (pdf) Møller, A. P., T.A. Mousseau and G. Rudolfsen. 2008. Females affect sperm swimming performance : a field experiment with barn swallows Hirundo rustica. Behavioral Ecology 19(6):1343-1350. (pdf) Møller, A. P., F. Karadas, & T. A. Mousseau. 2008. Antioxidants in eggs of great tits Parus major from Chernobyl and hatching success. J. Comp. Physiol. B. 178:735-743. (pdf) Kravets А.P, T.A. Mousseau, Omel’chenko1 Zh. A., Kozeretska I.A., Vengjen G.S. 2009. Dynamics of hybrid dysgenesis frequency in Drosophila melanogaster following controlled protracted radiation exposure. Cytology and Genetics, in press (in Russian). Kravets A.P., Mousseau T.A., Litvinchuk A.V., Ostermiller S., Vengjen G.S. 2009. Wheat seedlings DNA methylation pattern changes at chronic seeds γ- irradiation. Cytology and Genetics, in press (in Russian). Kozeretska, I.A., A.V. Protsenko, E.S. Afanas’eva, S.R. Rushkovskii, A.I. Chuba, T.A. Mousseau, and A.P. Moller. 2008. Mutation processes in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster and Hirundo rustica from radiation-contaminated regions of Ukraine. Cytology and Genetics 42(4) : 267-271. (pdf) Gashak, S.P., Y.A. Maklyuk, A.M. Maksimenko, V.M. Maksimenko, V.I. Martinenko, I.V. Chizhevsky, M.D. Bondarkov, T.A. Mousseau. 2008. The features of radioactive contamination of small birds in Chernobyl Zone in 2003-2005. Radiobiology and Radioecology 48: 27-47.(Russian). (pdf) Møller, A. P., T. A. Mousseau, C. Lynn, S. Ostermiller, and G. Rudolfsen. 2008. Impaired swimming behavior and morphology of sperm from barn swallows Hirundo rustica in Chernobyl. Mutation Research, Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 650:210-216. (pdf) Møller, A. P., T. A. Mousseau, F. de Lope and N. Saino. 2008. Anecdotes and empirical research in Chernobyl. Biology Letters, 4:65-66. (pdf) Møller, A.P. T.A Mousseau . 2007. Birds prefer to breed in sites with low radioactivity in Chernobyl. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 274:1443-1448. (pdf) Tsyusko, O.V., M.B. Peters, C. Hagen, T.D. Tuberville, T.A. Mousseau, A.P. Moller and T.C. Glenn. 2007. Microsatellite markers isolated from barn swallows (Hirundo rustica). Molecular Ecology Notes, 7: 833-835. (pdf) Møller, A. P., Surai, P., and T. A. Mousseau. 2004. Antioxidants, radiation and mutations in barn swallows from Chernobyl. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, 272: 247-252. (pdf) Camplani, A., N. Saino and A. P. Møller. 1999. Carotenoids, sexual signals and immune function in barn swallows from Chernobyl. – Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 266:1111-1116, 1999 . Møller, A.P. 1998. Developmental instability of plants and radiation from Chernobyl. – Oikos 81:444-448. Ellegren, H., G. Lindgren, C. R. Primmer and A. P. Møller. 1997. Fitness loss and germline mutations in barn swallows breeding in Chernobyl. – Nature 389:593-596. Impacts on Human Populations: Svendsen, E.R., J.R.Runkly, V.R. Dhara, S.Lin, M.Naboka, T.A. Mousseau and C. Bennett. 2012. Epidemiologic methods lessons learned from environmental public health disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(8): 2894-2909 (doi:10.3390/ijerph9082894). Svendsen, E.R., I.E. Kolpakov, Y.I. Stepanova, V.Y. Vdovenko, M.V. Naboka, T.A. Mousseau, L.C. Mohr, D.G. Hoel, W.J.J. Karmaus. 2009. 137Cesium exposure and spirometry measures in Ukrainian children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear incident. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118:720-725. (pdf) . Stepanova, E., W. Karmaus, M. Naboka, V. Vdovenko, T. Mousseau, V. Shestopalov, J. Vena, E. Svendsen, D. Underhill, and H. Pastides. 2008. Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine. A 6-year follow-up study. Environmental Health, 7:21. (pdf) Mousseau, T.A., N. Nelson, & V. Shestopalov. 2005. Don’t underestimate the death rate from Chernobyl. NATURE 437: 1089. (pdf) Shestopalov, V., M. Naboka, E. Stepanova, E. Skvarska, T. Mousseau, and Y.Serkis. 2004. Risk assessment of morbidity under conditions with different levels of radionuclides and heavy metals. Bulletin of the Chernobyl Zone 24(2): 40-47. (In Ukrainian). (pdf)