1. Benzine & radiation as separate agents of celluar insult:
Genotype-Dependent Induction of Transmissible Chromosomal
Instability by ;-Radiation and the Benzene
I. Duncan Gowans, Sally A. Lorimore, Joanne M. McIlrath, and Eric G. Wright
Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, University of Dundee Medical School, Dundee, United Kingdom
Although it is well established that ionizing radiation and
benzene are epidemiologically linked to acute myeloid
leukemia (AML), the underlying mechanisms are not understood.
We have shown that y radiation can induce a
persisting genomic instability in the clonal descendants of
hemopoietic stem cells manifested as a high frequency of
nonclonal chromosome and chromatid aberrations. A strikingly
similar instability is shown after exposure to the
benzene metabolite hydroquinone.
Source Link: http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CDsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcancerres.aacrjournals.org%2Fcontent%2F65%2F9%2F3527.full.pdf&ei=ccySUcOyJ5DckgWXs4GIDQ&usg=AFQjCNGyWiPqAq3A-7ZnBDq3S7eSdonRRw&bvm=bv.46471029%2Cd.dGI&cad=rja
2. Childhood disease and vehicle exhaust benzine
CHILDHOOD LEUKEMIA AND ROAD TRAFFIC: A POPULATION-BASED
Paolo CROSIGNANI1*, Andrea TITTARELLI1, Alessandro BORGINI1, Tiziana CODAZZI1, Adriano ROVELLI2, Emma PORRO2,
Paolo CONTIERO1, Nadia BIANCHI2, Giovanna TAGLIABUE1, Rosaria FISSI1, Francesco ROSSITTO3 and Franco BERRINO1
Lombardy Cancer Registry, National Cancer Institute, Milano, Italy
Varese Environmental Agency Unit (ARPA), Varese, Italy
Varese Health Unit (Saronno District), Saronno, (VA), Italy
2003 – Int
To assess the effect of road traffic exhaust on the risk of
childhood leukemia, we carried out a population-based casecontrol
study in the Province of Varese, northern Italy, covered
by a population-based cancer registry. All 120 incident
cases from 1978–97 were included in the study. Four controls
per case, matched by age and gender, were sampled from
population files. As index of exposure to traffic exhaust we
estimated the annual mean concentration of benzene outside
the home using a Gaussian diffusion model. This model
uses traffic density (vehicles/day) on nearby main roads, distance
between roads and residence, and information on vehicle
emissions and weather conditions to estimate benzene
concentration. Compared to children whose homes was not
exposed to road traffic emissions (<0.1 g/m3 of benzene as
estimated by the model), the risk of childhood leukemia was
significantly higher (relative risk [RR] 3.91; 95% confidence
interval [CI] 1.36–11.27) for heavily exposed children
(over 10 g/m3 estimated annual average). For the intermediate exposure group (0.1–10 g/m3) the relative risk was 1.51 (95% CI 0.91–2.51). These data, considered with otheravailable evidence, suggest that motor traffic emissions can be involved in the etiology of childhood leukemia.
© 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
3. Benzine and Radiation as synergistic combined agents of enhanced cellular insult:
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1997 May-Jun;37(3):387-94.
[The combined effect of ionizing radiation and benzene on immunoreactivity indices in the spleen and lymph nodes].
[Article in Russian]
Sharetskiĭ AN, Abramova MR, Zamulaeva IA, Kulish IuS.
Under the influence of the combined action of gamma irradiation (1 Gy, 1,15 Gy/min) and benzene the synergistic reduction of proportion and absolute content of B-cells and less expressed reduction of absolute content T-cells in spleen and lymph nodes was observed. In spleen the thymus-dependent humoral immune response was resistant to combined effect of irradiation and benzene, while in lymph nodes it was highly sensitive. The profound suppression of antibody formation in lymph nodes was characterized by synergism. It was accompanied by the block of specific recruitment of antigen sensitive cells within drained lymph nodes from migrating stream. The suppression of local immune response resulting from the combined effect of radiation and toxicants may be the cause of protective immunity disturbance.
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Things are significantly different in 2013 than they were in 1945. Single agent studies are optimistic in relation to the effects of radiation in the modern world compared to the dogmatic hankering for 1945 found in the studies of the nuclear industry. imo.
“The Western Lifestyle”