From Dennis Heyden, CVFI.
Dear all and undisclosed addressees ,
NEW EVIDENCE BACKED BY 111 REFERENCED SCIENTIFIC PAPERS
More evidence has emerged following the narrow UK Supreme Court verdict of 2012 by 4 to 3 stating the nuclear veterans have “ no evidence of causation for ill health ” and the recent Pension Appeals tribunals which found there is in fact reasonable doubt about exposure in ‘forward areas’ .
Richard Bramhall ( email firstname.lastname@example.org ) of the Low Level Radiation Campaign ( LLRC ) sent , on the 26th June, copy of Aspects of DNA Damage from Internal Radionuclides .
see attached . This contains 111 references to scientific papers supporting the view that inhaled and ingested alpha and beta particles ( i.e. fall out ) , noted by Judge Foskett in his conclusion to the 2009 Nuclear Veterans Limitation Trial is indeed the “ prime causal link to ill health” in Nuclear Test Veterans ( NTV’s ).
This recent paper gives comprehensive evidence of the biological effect of radionuclides on the DNA , backed by 111 scientific references , all of which are ignored by the International Commission for Radiological Protection ( ICRP ) in framing past and current radiation risk model for exposure to ionising radiation . As a consequence the current ICRP model, relied upon by the UK Ministry of Defence to deny accountability, is shown to be a significantly inadequate guide to radiation risk .
Q. AT A NUCLEAR TEST LOCATION WHAT IS A FORWARD AREA ?
Despite attempts to limit fall out to just small ’forward areas’ a few miles from huge nuclear detonations the whole of Christmas Island and other nuclear test locations, in Australia and the Pacific were, by logic and evidence , fall out locations of alpha and beta radiation. Since this type of radiation spreads many 100’s of miles and is easily inhaled and/ or ingested into the body to become “internal emitters” it poses a more severe long term risk to health than prompt short- lived gamma radiation released at the time of a nuclear weapon detonation .
Much of this is known to us . Your attention is drawn to the following appraisal . Please take time to read the whole document and circulate the content to any with an interest in the continued quest for justice for all nuclear test veterans .
All the best ,
To whom it may concern . The continued ‘conspiracy of silence’ [ 1 ] about the biological effects of ingested and/ or inhaled radioactive fall out particulates has resulted in the betrayal of loyal servicemen and the widows of UK and our Commonwealth Allies who participated in the UK nuclear weapon test programme of 1952 to 67 and who subsequently have suffered ill health and premature deaths .
The new paper entitled “ Aspects of DNA Damage from Internal Radionuclides”released by the Low Level Radiation Campaign on 26th June 2013 [ see attached ] has collated 111 scientific references confirming the International Commission on Radiological Protection [ ICRP ] radiation risk model for inhaled / ingested ‘internal emitters’ is totally inadequate.
The following is only a brief appraisal. Please read the whole document and the references given which are extremely relevant .
Notes that although in the last 70 years the biological effects of exposure to ionising radiation have been studied extensively ..very little effort has gone into examining the health effects of exposure to internal incorporated radionuclides .”
The paper explains how tissue close to the source of these internal incorporated radionuclides, which act as “ internal emitters”, receive very large doses of damaging radiation transfer which are ignored by the ICRP risk model .
2. Fundamental principles
Wherever radiation energy is delivered into tissue , blood , organs or bone it “creates harmful effects causing mutations in genetic material at the cellular DNA level “ of exposed persons . This was shown in significant elevated genetic damage by cytogenetic blood tests of nuclear test veterans (NTVs) in the peer reviewed but ignored 2007 New Zealand , Rowland Study . The latest paper also confirms chromosomal translocations are heritable in DNA passed to future generations. A point also admitted in the 1997 NATO Field Commanders Directive on the effects of the use of depleted uranium weapons by Allied Forces Europe .
“ Internal exposure results from radioactive decay of radionuclides incorporated into tissue through inhalation or ingestion” and “ there is strong evidence that the damage to DNA is the cause of the effects of ionising radiation “.
This section also concludes, despite intense study of localised and transmitted effects of internal emitters in the 1960’s, ( see below ) that no attempt has been made to recognise the science or incorporate research findings for radiological protection purpose .
In 1983 Dr H Evans of the Medical Research Council, Edinburgh, found elevated levels of chromosomal translocations in a NTV.
Dr C. Sutcliffe also noted in his book “ The Dangers of Low Level Radiation” – 1987, that Dr Evans et al in a paper entitled Radiation Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Nuclear Dockyard Workers ( 1979 ), found that although exposure to workers on Nuclear Submarines at Rosyth Royal Navy base in Scotland were below the internationally accepted maximum permissible for workers of 50 mSv per year set by the ICRP , there was a significant increase in their chromosomal damage . This chromosomal damage in these workers was found by Evans et al to increase as dose increased .
Dr Evans noted that blood samples were taken from 197 workers at Rosyth starting in 1968 for ten years . Yet , according to latest letters from the Ministry of Defence in 2013, the stated position of Government , and its predecessors regard cytogenetic blood testing of NTV’S and their children “ due to the specialist nature of this research tool will not be of assistance to them.”
By ‘them’ nuclear veterans understand the MoD’s meaning to be that it will not be of assistance to the Ministry of Defence as it would probably indicate, as with the Rosyth workers and others blood tested by Government since the 1960’S , that the veterans and their children also have significant genetic damage .
3. Concerns about internal radionuclides
The paper in 3. 3 , Double Strand Breaks, states “ Radioactivity from releases from nuclear explosions , eg accidents like Chernobyl , or from weapons tests is partly in the form of sub-micron particles which are respirable and can be translocated from the lung .”
The UK Ministry of Defence regarding NTV’s states : “ there is no evidence of excess illness or mortality arising from their participation in the the test ” and base this only on three epidemiological studies carried out by the National Radiological Protection Board – now part of the Health Protection Agency . These studies were not based on cytogenetic blood testing for DNA damage and are acknowledged by many independent experts ( e.g. Dr Keith Baverstock and others ) as significantly flawed and biased for political purposes . It is interesting to note however in 2007 the Health Protection Agency reassured the public in London, following the assassination of the Russian dissident , Alexander Litvinenko , that this type of radiation (in Litvinenko’s case alpha particle polonium 210 , present in nuclear weapon fall out) is no danger to public health unless inhaled or ingested into the body ! . The Government’s HPA scientists therefore appear to confirm the conclusion of Judge Foskett in 2009 that the prime causal link to ill health ( and premature deaths ) in NTV’s is from fall out particulates inhaled and ingested into the body . But of course, this is an admission only when it is politically expedient to do so .
Table 3 Internal radionuclides of concern
…” ..if an alpha emitting nuclide is either randomly positioned near or chemically attracted to the DNA, there is a significant probability that the highly ionising track will traverse the two strands of the DNA , and damage multiple sites.”
in the summary at 3.4 it adds …
“ The key point is that , for certain internal exposure regimes , the ionisation density at the DNA and the damage in the DNA can be extremely high even though the absorbed dose , as calculated by the current (ICRP ) methodology , may be extremely low .”
“ …can be inhaled and translocated from the lung to the lymphatic system .They are created in nuclear explosions , from power plant accidents , from nuclear site releases and from Uranium weapons on battlefields . Depending on their nuclide composition they can produce very high local doses to tissue in which they become immobilised , but may also , depending on their diameter and composition , produce lower doses. Two concerns are Uranium and Plutonium oxide particles . Both contaminated large areas of land in Europe after Chernobyl [ note: radionuclide fall out spread as far as the Welsh Mountains after Chernobyl which makes ALL nuclear test locations forward areas of fall out ] ..However , the methodology employed [ for radiological protection purpose ] diluted the particulate energy into the lymphatic system modelled as several kilograms of tissue rather than the tracheobronchial lymph nodes which weigh much less .”
Please note , the effect of this dilution on NTV’s health damage assessment has been further eroded by the fact that veterans who have had lymph nodes removed for example find that there is, conveniently for the Ministry of Defence, no trace of such procedures in hospital records . ( e.g.nuclear veteran David Whyte , Freedom of Information , First Tier Tribunal , February 2012) . it is significant that this causal link to legacy ill health is ignored . Indeed NTV’s have also been covertly flagged for Medical Research post-mortems . For the MoD covert post – mortem examination , often without family consent , of NTV’s admitted in the Redfern Inquiry Report , pages 89 and 90 , into tissue , organ and bone analysis published in 2010, also shows the records of clandestine research conducted under Medical Research programme MR 185 also remains untraceable .
5.5 Summary and conclusions [ of Aspects of DNA Damage from Internal Radionuclides ] states that :
“ The current radiation risk model is insecure for internal radionuclide effects” .
FURTHER COMMENT BY THE COMBINED VETERANS’ FORUM INTERNATIONAL ( CVFI )
The release of the scientific paper- Aspects of DNA Damage from Internal Radionuclides- with 111 references shows, yet again , that more evidence continues to emerge that the nuclear test veterans are victim of the prime radiation causal link to legacy ill health , that is from the biological effects of inhaled and ingested fall out particulates . The deliberate failure by government to monitor their health annually, which would of course include cytogenetic blood tests to determine genetic damage , shows a negligent abandonment from any duty of care to them their prematurely widowed wives and genetically damaged children .
The ‘conspiracy of silence’ at [ 1 ] above about the biological effects of fall out was first brought to the attention of Government in a letter from Professor Haddow , Director of the Chester Beatty Research Institute , Royal Cancer in 1951 to the Atomic Energy Research Establishment set up to support an evolving nuclear energy industry .Copy available on request .
For further information on the content of this appraisal contact a founder of the CVFI email at email@example.com
For further information on the attached copy “ Aspects of DNA Damage from Internal Radionuclides” contact the Low level Radiation Campaign on their website @llrc.org or email firstname.lastname@example.org
This is an open email for international circulation by the CVFI – 10 July 2013 .
Medicine » Medical Genetics » “New Research Directions in DNA Repair”, book edited by Clark Chen, ISBN 978-953-51-1114-6, Published: May 22, 2013 under CC BY 3.0 license
Aspects of DNA Damage from Internal Radionuclides
By Christopher Busby