The Measurement of Internal Dose

E.P. Cronkite of the AEC was a first responder to the Castle Bravo Disaster of 1954.

He provided detailed testimony on the nature of radiological harms suffered by the Marshall Islanders. He provided the results of measurements of internalized fallout products suffered to a 1957 US Congressional Sub Committee Hearing.

He stated that “Rare and alkaline earths accounted for about 70 percent of the urine radioactivity. Strontium 89 was about at the maximum permissible level……”

Source:
85th Congress 1st Session JOINT COMMITTEE JOINT COMMITTEE
ON ATOMIC ENERGY SUMMARY-ANALYSIS OF HEARINGS MAY 27-29,
AND JUNE 3-‘7,1957 ON THE NATURE OF RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT AND
ITS EFFECTS ON MAN AUGUST 1957, Printed for the use of the JointCommittee on Atomic Energy UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 8.57190 WASHINGTON : 1957, P935 STATEMENT OF
EUGENE P.CRONKITE, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

It is all very well to estimate and guess. It is quite another to actually measure, as Cronkite measured.

Nuclear authorities in England, Australia and currently Japan provide examples of authorities who are extremely unwilling to actually measure.

Few or none British, Australian, New Zealand nuclear veterans had their urine checked for excretion of fallout products. The only attempted monitoring was a woefully conducted external measurement regime in which individual dose records were incomplete, lost or with held. The analysis of the dose reconstructions are based upon a theory pertaining to internal emitters which suites the official motive.

The ICRP was not in charge of the British Nuclear Tests. The British were. Instead of measurement, they used a theoretical basis of equivalence.

Reality is reality, not a reconstruction buffered by artithmetic.

In Japan, film records nuclear authorities running for the elevators after a curtailed public meeting. During this meeting parents had asked the officials to measure the cesium, Iodine, strontium and other reactor fallout products in the urine of their babies. The officials refused, uttering the assertion that their dose estimates were sufficient to assure safety. This was not enough for the parents. As the officials grew uneasy and high tailed it for the lifts, the parents, holding bottles of urine, desperately followed.

This scenario is an archetype for the events and experiences of all victims of the British nuclear tests, including the nuclear veterans.

Earlier in the hearing, the American public were given a far rosier picture of the state of affairs and the state of health of the victims of the Marshall Islands. History was to confirm the veracity of the actual measurements as a predictor of outcomes. The same history was to reveal the facile nature of the gauging harm merely on the inadequate appearance of things:

“The victims of the Castle Bravo fallout disaster of 1 March 1954 were studied intensely and official descriptions presented a minimised portrayal of their suffering: “The skin has been carefully observed at 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, and 3 years after exposure, and there is no
evidence at the present time of any breakdown in the early burns of the skin, there is no evidence of the development of cancer at this time. In time the depigmented scars are still evident.

The individuals have been seen on two occasions by a plastic surgeon, Dr. Bradford Cannon, of the Harvard Medical School, who feels that no plastic repair is necessary and that the prognosis in general is good.” [1]

Would Dr Cannon have felt the same had his wife or daughter been a victim?
The Marshall Islanders suffered major contamination by nuclear fallout. This was both external as a skin dose; it was also internalized. Hundreds of claims from victims of cancer were eventually accepted by the United States. The external harm, the Beta radiation burns, was an indicator of the
risk of internalization of the fission products. [2]

“In June 1983,…the U.S. recognized the contributions and sacrifices made by the people of the Marshall Islands in regard to the Nuclear Testing Program and accepted the responsibility for compensation
owing to citizens of the Marshall Islands for loss or damage to property and person resulting from that testing….” “of [the] 1,999 awardees, more than 1,000 have died receiving only partial payment awarded for their personal injuries. As of December 31, 2006, a total of $73,261,198
paid to those awardees or their heirs, leaving an unpaid balance of $18,140,802.” The 36 medical conditions for which the payments have been made are: 1. Leukemia (other than chronic lymphocytic
leukemia). 2. Cancer of the thyroid. 3. Cancer of the breast. 4. Cancer of the pharynx. 5. Cancer of the esophagus. 6. Cancer of the stomach. 7. Cancer of the small intestine. 8. Cancer of the pancreas. 9. Multiple myeloma.
10. Lymphomas (except Hodgkin’s disease). 11. Cancer of the bile
ducts. 12. Cancer of the gall bladder. 13. Cancer of the liver (except if cirrhosis or hepatitis B is indicated).
14. Cancer of the colon. 15. Cancer of the urinary tract. including the urinary bladder, renal pelves, and urethra. 16. Tumors of the salivary gland. 17. Non-malignant thyroid nodular disease
71
(unless limited to occult nodules). 18. Cancer of the ovary. 19. Unexplained hypothyroidism (unless thyroiditis indicated). 20. Severe growth retardation due to thyroid damage. 21. Unexplained bone marrow failure.
22. Meningioma. 23. Radiation sickness diagnosed between June 30, 1946 and
August 18,1958, inclusive. 24. Beta burns diagnosed between June 30, 1946 andAugust 18, 1958, inclusive. 25. Severe mental retardation (provided born between May and September 1954, inclusive, and mother was present on Rongelap or Utirik Atolls at any time in March 1954). 26. Unexplained
hyperparathyroidism. 27. Tumors of the parathyroid gland. 28. Bronchial cancer (including cancer of the lung and pulmonary system). 29. Tumors of the brain, including schwannomas, but not including other benign neural tumors. 30. Cancer of the central nervous system. 31. Cancer of the kidney. 32. Cancer of the rectum. 33. Cancer of the cecum. 34. Non-melanoma skin cancer in individuals who were diagnosed as having suffered beta burns under number 24 above. 35. Cancer of the bone. 36.
Autoimmune thyroiditis. [3]
SOURCES
The Marshall Islands
[1] JOINT COMMITTEE ON ATOMIC ENERGY SUMMARY-ANALYSIS OF
HEARINGS MAY 27-29, AND JUNE 3-7,1957 ON THE NATURE OF
RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT AND ITS EFFECTS ON MAN AUGUST 1957
[2] ibid.
[3] Marshall Islands Nuclear Claims Tribunal, June 11, 2007

Source: Medicine and the Bomb. Paul Langley 2009 -2012

The point is, if officials are unwilling to actually the excretion of the fallout products, their predictions of what was absorbed, and its effects, cannot be confirmed by any rational person. The mere fact that a forumla is held to be true by anyone of any authority is not a proof which over rides reality.

So, in relation to nuclear victims as caused by the Crown, why the reluctance to measure? Why, in the absence of measurement is there a religious fervour in a set of calculations which replace the reality?

Because the reality is denied.


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