Archive for August, 2013

Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan

August 31, 2013

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130429/srep01742/full/srep01742.html

Overview of active cesium contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and Eastern Japan

Toshiaki Mizuno
& Hideya Kubo
The Center for Risk Research, Shiga University

Nature Science Reports 3, Article number: 1742 doi:10.1038/srep01742
Received 13 March 2012 Accepted 05 April 2013 Published 29 April 2013

This paper focuses on an overview of radioactive cesium 137 (quasi-Cs137 included Cs134) contamination of freshwater fish in Fukushima and eastern Japan based on the data published by the Fisheries Agency of the Japanese Government in 2011. In the area north and west of the Fukushima Nuclear plant, freshwater fish have been highly contaminated. For example, the mean of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) is 2,657 Bq/kg at Mano River, 20–40 km north-west from the plant. Bioaccumulation is observed in the Agano river basin in Aizu sub-region, 70–150 km west from the plant. The active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of carnivorous Salmondae is around 2 times higher than herbivorous Ayu. The extent of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination of Ayu is observed in the entire eastern Japan. The some level of the contamination is recognized even in Shizuoka prefecture, 400 km south-west from the plant.

Introduction

The serious accidents of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant have been contaminating a vast area in eastern Japan1, home of 60 million people. Consumption of freshwater fish is an important part of the aquatic pathway for the transfer of radionuclides to the freshwater ecosystem creatures including humans2. Therefore the contamination of freshwater fish of aquatic bioaccumulation is an important problem3, 4. In the case of the Chernobyl Accident, the transfer of radionuclides to fish has been studied in European countries5, 6, 7. Most attention was focused on Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, because of the higher contamination of water bodies in these areas8, 9. However, in the case of Fukushima, there is little information about freshwater ecosystem contamination in 2011. Therefore, this paper focuses on an overview of active cesium 137 (quasi-Cs137) contaminations of freshwater fish in Fukushima and eastern Japan based on 2011 data published by the Fisheries Agency of the Japanese Government10

Results
Highest contaminated area in fukushima prefecture

Fukushima Prefecture is located in the northeastern part of the Main Island of Japan (Fig. 1). It is divided into three sub-regions by its mountainous topography, i.e., Hamadori, Nakadori and Aizu (from east to west). Hamadori is the coastal region facing the Pacific Ocean and separated from Nakadori (central basin) by the Abukuma Highlands. The westernmost Aizu is mountainous with the Aizu Basin in the center. There still is a rich natural environment maintained throughout the prefecture with three national parks, one quasi-national park and eleven prefectural parks present. The mountain ranges form headwaters and basins of many rivers such as the Abukuma River and the Aga River. The Abukuma Highlands is designated as one of the prefectural parks and rich in endemic wildlife including the indigenous forest green tree frog (Rhacophorus arboreus) and salamanders (Hynobius lichenatus, Hynobius nigrescens). There the Ayu (Plecoglossidae: Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis), Salmon (Salmonidae: Oncorhynchus masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis) and carp (Cyprinidae: Tribolodon hakonensis, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius.sp) are very popular freshwater fish for fishing and angling.

Figure 1 Fukushima prefecture water system.

Blue is water system: Aga river basin is west area of Fukushima, Abkuma river basin is center of Fukushima. Green is mountain chain or highland where heights is more 1,000 m. Yellow is high contaminated area by nuclear accidents. We created the map using the GIS software which is ‘MANDARA for windows 2000/XP/VISTA/7 Version 9.35’ (the software copyright: 1992–2011 Tani Kenji).

The Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant is located in Hamadori. Due to the topography with the Pacific Ocean in the east and the Abukuma Highlands in the west, the areas in the north to the west of the plant are highly contaminated. Such areas include Iidate Village and Date City. The Mano River which flows through Iidate Village in the upstream and Minami-souma City. Two months after the accident, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport surveyed the Mano River11. The survey results of the contamination level of the bottom soil are Cs134: 6,900 Bq/kg and Cs137: 7,800 Bq/kg in Mano River of Minamisouma city at Majima bridge on 29/5/2011. While the area downstream and the Abukuma River in Date City found higher contamination. Two months after the accident, the Ministry of Environment surveyed the Abukuma River of Date city. The survey results of the contamination level of the bottom soil are Cs134: 11,000 Bq/kg and Cs137: 12,000 Bq/kg in Abukuma River of Date city at Taisho bridge on 24/5/2011.

The contamination level of radioactive cesium (quasi-Cs137) of the Ayu, annual and herbivorous species, captured in these rivers or their tributaries between May and September 2011 was measured. The cesium bioaccumulation of those captured in the Mano River was mean 2,657 Bq/kg (n = 3, median 2,900 Bq/kg, range 1,770–3,300 Bq/kg) and the Abukuma River at Date city was mean 1,770 Bq/kg, (n = 11, median 1,170 Bq/kg, range 650–2,080 Bq/kg ).
The bioaccumulations of Aga river basin (West Fukushima)

The Aga River Basin encompasses the entire Aizu region in west Fukushima. The river water flows through from the Aizu region to the Sea of Japan. As it lies over 70 km to the west of the nuclear power plant and both the Abukuma Highlands and Oou montain chain are in between, the Cs137 contamination level here was lower than Mano river and the Abukuma river basin. Two months after the accident, Fukushima prefecture surveyed the Agano River (Aga river Basin) of Aizu and South Aizu region12. The survey results of the contamination level of bottom soil were Cs134: 29 Bq/kg and Cs137: 33 Bq/kg in Agano River of Aizu region at Miyako bridge on 27/5/2011, Cs134: 29 Bq/kg and Cs137: 34 Bq/kg in Agano river of Minami-Aizu region at Tajima bridge on 27/5/2011.

In the aga river basin, the bioaccumulation of fish are well recognized. Fig. 2 shows the quasi-Cs137 contamination and bioaccumulation levels of three fish families captured in the basin, i.e., Plecoglossidae (Plecoglossus altivelis n = 18), Cyprinidae (Tribolodon hakonensis n = 25, Cyprinus carpio n = 5, Carassius sp. n = 11)and Salmonidae(Oncorhynchus masou n = 12, Salvelinus leucomaenis n = 13) between April and December 2011. Since p-value = 0.008 ≤ 0.05 of Kruskal-Wallis Test, at the p = 0.05 level of significance, there exists enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference among the three families based on the ac

tive cesium contamination level. The median of herbivorous Plecoglossidae shows the lowest level among the three families (n = 18, mean 50.64 Bq/kg, median = 46.00 Bq/kg, range 12.00–90.00 Bq/kg). Then the median of omnivorous Cyprinidae shows about 1.6 times (n = 41, mean 79.80 Bq/kg, median 72.00 Bq/kg, range 15.00–210.00 Bq/kg) and the mean of carnivorous Salmonidae about 1.9 times higher (n = 25, mean 96.24 Bq/kg, median 89.00 Bq/kg, 17–200 Bq/kg) than Plecoglossidae.

Figure 2: Error bars indicate ranges of concentration of active cesium (quasi-Cs137) each family on Aga river basin.

The box plots indicate inter-quartile ranges of these data. Bars are into the each box indicate the each median.

The widespread contamination in eastern Japan

To the south west of Fukushima prefecture, there lies the Kanto region which as well as containing the metropolitan prefecture of Tokyo also comprises Ibaraki prefecture, Tochigi prefecture, Gunma prefecture, Saitama prefecture, and Chiba prefecture. In the area, there is the Tone river basin that is the one of biggest river basins (16,840 km2) in Japan. Therefore, there are not only many source points of water springs and many rivers and streams but also high density water network systems of irrigation canals and urban water systems. Freshwater fish inhabit all types of water systems. As a result, the level of freshwater contamination can be taken as an index of the environmental contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The isogram map (Fig. 3) shows an average of quasi-Cs137 for each prefecture about contamination levels of the Ayu (Plecoglossus) captured in between May and September 2011.

Figure 3: The isogram map shows average active cesium (quasi-Cs137) contamination level of the Ayu (Plecoglossus) captured in between May and September 2011 on each prefectures in eastern Japan.

Each isogram center points are each prefecture’s capital city. We created the map using the GIS software which is ‘MANDARA for windows 2000/XP/VISTA/7 Version 9.35’ (the software copyright: 1992–2011 Tani Kenji).

The relation between distance from power plant and contamination level

We found a relation between the distance from the power plant and the quasi-Cs137 contamination level of freshwater fish. According to the result of inverse regression analysis about quasi-Cs137 contamination levels related to the distance from the nuclear power plants of each prefectural capital city, the equation is: Y = 27339.82−1 × −75.13 (Y = Cesium, X = The Distance from the plants to each prefecture’s capital https://nuclearhistory.wordpress.com/wp-admin/index.phpcity, Signif F = 0.009 < 0.05, Adjusted R Square 0.50). In areas within a radius of 100 km from the nuclear plant, active cesium contamination levels of the Ayu are more than 200 Bq/kg. In those between a radius of 100 km and 200 km, it is around 60–200 Bq/kg. In those between a radius of 200 km and 300 km in which Tokyo is included, it is 20–60 Bq/kg. Therefore, it is estimated that contamination of freshwater fish is extended to all prefectures in eastern Japan. The contamination is recognized as far as Shizuoka prefecture, 400 km south-west from the plant.

Discussion

The Japanese freshwater system is very high density as developed rice water paddy field, irrigation canal, urban water-system network. Therefore, we have to think that the contamination of freshwater fish is widespread not only in river basins but also all over the ground included all types of water-systems, for example, agricultural and urban water systems. The isogram map shows the contamination tendency quite well. The contamination levels of the freshwater fish provide insufficient data and the knowledge of the path about bioaccumulation. So, we will have to survey a more wide spread area and monitor bioaccumulation in each species level.

In this paper we show the relation between distance and contamination levels by inverse regression analysis. The results indicate the effects of quasi radioactive cesium 137 by the Fukushima accident look like less serious than those of the Chernobyl accident. However, contamination levels are possibly higher than the Chernobyl as the cesium is concentrated by the water systems in limitation region. Water paddy field look like shallow pond saved mud included cesium 137. Moreover, the cesium137 will distribute and concentrate by high density irrigation canal and urban water-system. For example, the highly contaminated Taisho river bottom soil Cs134: 4,335 Bq/kg, Cs137: 5,456 Bq/kg was found at 1/11/2011 at Kitakashiwa bridge of Kashiwa city in Tokyo metropolitan area, 200 km south-west from the plant13. Therefore we must carefully and continuously monitor the contamination to the freshwater ecosystem and human health.

Methods

Data 2011 of radioactive cesium of freshwater fish was analyzed by each local government according to the emergency food survey manual of radioactive substance14. The purpose of this manual is they avoid feeding high contaminated food it was defined by food security of emergency condition. Therefore, it is not aimed at collecting accurate data. As a result, this data did not distinguish between cesium137 and cesium134. Therefore, the analysis of this paper calculated by quasi-Cs137 included Cs134. They used germanium semiconductor machine when they measured the radioactive cesium contamination of freshwater fish. The measure time is from 10 minute to 1 hour. The calibration is only Cs137 in per week. The range of radioactive cesium applied only Cs137 regression equation. The result, when the case included Cs134 is relatively much, the numerical value become over estimation. The sample of freshwater fish was collected by each prefectural government by emergency policy of food security. In the survey, the fish sample collected 5–10 kg in one survey station. The measure is using wet condition fish. Ayu and small fish was measured hole body, while big fish measured the part of food portion.

References

1. Monitoring information of environmental radioactivity level, MEXT and DOE Airborne Monitoring, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology in Japan, http://radioactivity.mext.go.jp/en/list/203/list-1.html (2013).

2. Joanna, B. et al. Radiocesium in Fish from the Savannah River and Steel Creek: Potential Food Chain Exposure to the Public. Risk Analysis Vol. 21, No.3, 545–559 (2001).

3. McCreedy, C. D., Jagoe, C. H., Glickman, L. T. & Brisbin Jr, I. L. Bioaccumulation of cesium-137 in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) in habiting an abandoned nuclear reactor reservoir. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16, 328–335 (1997).

4. Rowan, J. R. & Rasmussen, J. B. Bioaccumulation of radiocesium by fish: The influence of physicochemical factors and trophic structure. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 51, 2388–2410 (1994).

5. Hakanson, L., Anderson, T. & Nilsson, A. Caesium-137 in perch in Swedish lakes after Chernobyl-present situation, relationships and trends. Environmental Pollution 58, 195–212 (1989).

6. Ugedal, O., Forseth, T., Jonsson, B. & Njastad, O. Sources of variation in radiocesium levels between individual fish from a Chernobyl contaminated Norwegian lake. Journal of Applied Ecology 32, 352–361 (1995).

7. Elliott, J. M. et al. Sources of variation in post-Chernobyl radiocesium in fish from two Cumbrian lakes (north-west England). Journal of Applied Ecology 29, 108–119 (1992).

8. Long-Term Observation of Radioactivity Contamination in Fish around Chernobyl. RYABOV I N Vol 79, 112–122 (2002).

9. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation : twenty years of experience report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group ‘Environment’. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency (2006).

10. Results of the inspection on radioactivity materials in fisheries products, Fisheries Agency, http://www.jfa.maff.go.jp/e/inspection/index.html. (2012).

11. Urgent radionuclides monitoring report in public water system area of Fukushima prefecture (in Japanese), Ministry of Environment, http://www.env.go.jp/water/suiiki/urgent/result201106.pdf. (2011).

12. Urgent environmental radionuclides monitoring report in public water system area of Fukushima prefecture at 4/6/2011(in Japanese), Fukushima Prefecture, http://www.pref.fukushima.jp/j/koukyouyousuiikimonitaring.pdf. (2011).

13. Final report of the highly contamination spot in Kashiwa city (in Japanese), Ministry of Environment, http://www.env.go.jp/press/press.php?serial = 14647. (2012).

14. The survey manual “Guide: Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities”, Nuclear Safety Commission, June, 1980-final revised in 2010. (2010).

Acknowledgements

This paper was as part of the water risk research project at Center of Risk Research of Shiga University. Thankful that Mr. Shigeki Komori (WWF Japan) advised us for improvement of this paper.
Author information

Affiliations

The Center for Risk Research, Shiga University
Toshiaki Mizuno &
Hideya Kubo

Contributions

T.M. wrote the main manuscript text and prepared figures. All authors reviewed the manuscript.
Competing financial interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Corresponding author

Correspondence to:

Toshiaki Mizuno

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Global inventory of radioxenon emissions from nuclear power plants

August 31, 2013

http://www.znf.uni-hamburg.de/EGU07Matthias.pdf

Beta Burns on Fukushima cattle ignored by Japanese officials

August 31, 2013

http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/white-spots-on-fukushima/794996.html
Channel News Asia

29 Aug 2013

Two years ago, Channel NewsAsia obtained footage from within Japan’s 20 km Fukushima exclusion zone featuring a farmer who defied government orders to exterminate his cattle. While residents are now being allowed to return, nothing has been said about the changes now seen on the cattle

JAPAN: The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltdown taught the world that long-term radiation exposure can cause DNA and immunological changes in living organisms.

Following the Fukushima nuclear disaster, farmer Masami Yoshizawa kept his cattle alive to monitor changes due to prolonged radiation exposure. Now, mysterious white spots on the fur and skin are appearing on 10 of his Japanese black cattle.

As revelations about continued problems around the nuclear plant emerged, it should be a major concern for Japan’s agricultural business. But so far, nothing has been said about the issue.

Kazuo Suzuki, the Ministry of Agriculture official responsible for livestock within the 20 kilometre exclusion zone, was informed of the white spots by Mr Yoshizawa when he visited Mr Yoshizawa’s farm in December 2012.

However, when he was asked about the visit, he claimed that he did not remember seeing the white-spotted cows and explained that the cows should be tested by the Livestock Hygiene Service Centre and not the Ministry of Agriculture.

Local farmers however disagree, saying they were told by the Fukushima prefectural officials that all such investigations fall under the Ministry of Agriculture’s authority.

There is a lot at stake and to admit the existence of these cows would only invite greater attention to the problem, with a possibly devastating effect on the trade of Fukushima livestock.

When it comes to radiated land, air and sea, drawing a 20km exclusion line is as arbitrary as having a smoking section on an aeroplane. But in 2012, despite the nuclear disaster in the prefecture, beef from Fukushima was still the fifth most traded and shipped at Japan’s biggest beef market in Tokyo.

Toshimitsu Matsubara, a veterinarian with experience in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor meltdown, is eager to have the animals tested.

Dr Matsubara, who is also the president of the BBB Beef Association, said: “What is happening now {with these cows} is extremely important. Japan has to think of what to do with this problem.”

Instead, the government continues to ease restrictions around Fukushima while serious problems continue to be exposed. The recent threat level from 300 tones of toxic waste that leaked into the Pacific Ocean was raised from level 1 to a level 3 — a “serious incident”.

As the human population warily returns to Namie town, no one knows for certain what is happening to the cows on Mr Yoshizawa’s Pasture of Hope. And Fukushima’s agriculture officials, apparently, prefer not to find out.

– CNA/ac

See also

https://nuclearhistory.wordpress.com/2013/03/05/fukushima-nowsbs-tv-australia-5-march-2013-spot-the-beta-burns/.

https://nuclearhistory.wordpress.com/2013/06/24/masami-yoshizawa-and-his-cattle-of-fukushima/

Fukushima fishermen can’t catch a break Japan Times

August 31, 2013

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/08/30/national/fukushima-fishermen-cant-catch-a-break/#.UiH-MM5R4vQ

Fukushima fishermen can’t catch a break
One more blow comes in form of toxic water reaching sea
by Koji Ueda

AP

IWAKI, FUKUSHIMA PREF. – Third-generation fisherman Fumio Suzuki sets out into the Pacific Ocean every seven weeks. Not to catch fish to sell, but to catch fish that can be tested for radiation.

For the last 2½ years, fishermen from the port of Yotsukura near the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant have been mostly stuck on land with little to do. There is no commercial fishing along most of the Fukushima coast.

In a nation highly sensitive to food safety, there is no market for fish that are caught near the stricken plant because the meltdowns it suffered contaminated the ocean water and marine life with radiation.

A sliver of hope emerged after recent sampling results showed a decline in radioactivity in some fish species. But a new crisis spawned by fresh leaks of radioactive water from the plant last week may have dashed those prospects.

Fishermen like the 47-year-old Suzuki now wonder whether they ever will be able to resume fishing, a mainstay for many small rural communities like Yotsukura, 45 km south of the Fukushima plant. His son has already moved on, looking for work in construction.

“The operators (of the plant) are reacting too late every time in whatever they do,” said Suzuki, who works with his 79-year-old father, Choji, after inheriting the family business from him.

“We say, ‘Don’t spill contaminated water,’ and they spilled contaminated water. They are always a step behind, so that is why we can’t trust them,” Suzuki said, as his trawler, the Ebisu Maru, traveled before dawn to a point about 45 km offshore from the Fukushima plant to bring back a test catch.

With his father at the helm, Suzuki dropped the heavy nets off the stern as the black of night faded to a sapphire sky, tinged orange at the horizon.

As the sun rose over a glassy sea, father and son hauled in the heavily laden nets and then set to the hard work of sorting the fish: sardines, starfish, sole, sea bream, sand sharks, tossing them into yellow and blue plastic baskets as seagulls screamed and swooped overhead.

Five hours later, the Ebisu Maru docked at Yotsukura, where waiting fishermen dumped the samples into coolers and rushed them to a nearby laboratory to be gutted and tested.

Suzuki says his fisheries cooperative will decide sometime soon whether to continue gathering samples. For now they will have to survive on compensation from the government and Tokyo Electric Power Co.

The cooperative also had plans to start larger-scale test catches next month that would potentially also be for consumption if radiation levels were deemed safe.

But those plans were put on hold after more bad news last week: authorities discovered that a massive amount of partially treated, radioactive water was leaking from tanks at Fukushima, the fifth and so far the worst, breach.

The water, stored in some 1,000 tanks, had been pumped into the three damaged reactors to keep their melted fuel cool. Much of the water leaked into the ground, but some apparently reached the sea via a rainwater gutter and other routes.

On Wednesday, the Nuclear Regulation Authority upgraded its rating of the leak to a “serious incident,” or level 3, up from a level 1 on the international scale of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

It remains unclear what the environmental impact from the latest contamination will be on sea life. Scientists have said contamination tends to be carried by a southward current and largely diluted as it spreads.

Nobuyuki Hatta, director of the Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Research Center, said the trend had been positive before the latest leaks, with fewer fish found exceeding radiation limits.

The government’s safety limit is 100 becquerels per kilogram, but local officials have set a stricter bar of 50 becquerels, said Hatta, who still expects test fishing to resume in September.

It all depends on the type of fish, their habitat and what they eat. Out of 170 types of fish tested, 42 species are off-limits due to concern they are too radioactive, while 15 species show little or no signs of contamination. Few, if any, show any detectable levels of cesium.

Tests take more than a month and are complicated. The time lag makes it difficult to say at any given point if sea life caught off Fukushima is really safe to eat.

Also, local labs lack the ability to test fish for other toxic radioactive elements, including strontium and tritium. Scientists say strontium should be particularly watched for, as it accumulates in bones. Tepco’s monitoring results of seawater show spikes in strontium levels in recent weeks.

Suzuki has little faith in the future of his business.

“People in the fishing business have no choice but to give up,” he said. “Many have mostly given up already.”

Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume

August 31, 2013

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096706371300112X

Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume

Vincent Rossia, b, Corresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author, E-mail the corresponding author,
Erik Van Sebilleb, c,
Alexander Sen Guptab, c,
Véronique Garçond,
Matthew H. Englandb, c

a IFISC (Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems), CSIC-UIB, Palma de Mallorca, 07122 Spain
b Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
c ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
d Laboratoire d’Etude en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, CNRS/UPS/IRD/CNES, 14 av. E. Belin, Toulouse 31400, France

Journal: Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers

Volume 80, October 2013, Pages 37–46

Highlights

Cs-137 plume strongly diluted by July 2011, reaches American coast by 2014.

Mode water formation and persistent upwelling affect Cs-137 concentrations.

Cs-137 enters the deep ocean and exits the North Pacific in the next 30 years.

Sensitivity to uncertainties in the source function and to interannual variability.

Abstract

Following the March 2011 Fukushima disaster, large amounts of water contaminated with radionuclides, including Cesium-137, were released into the Pacific Ocean. With a half-life of 30.1 years, Cs-137 has the potential to travel large distances within the ocean. Using an ensemble of regional eddy-resolving simulations, this study investigates the long-term ventilation pathways of the leaked Cs-137 in the North Pacific Ocean. The simulations suggest that the contaminated plume would have been rapidly diluted below 10,000 Bq/m3 by the energetic Kuroshio Current and Kurushio Extension by July 2011. Based on our source function of 22 Bq/m3, which sits at the upper range of the published estimates, waters with Cs-137 concentrations >10 Bq/m3 are projected to reach the northwestern American coast and the Hawaiian archipelago by early 2014. Driven by quasi-zonal oceanic jets, shelf waters north of 45°N experience Cs-137 levels of 10–30 Bq/m3 between 2014 and 2020, while the Californian coast is projected to see lower concentrations (10–20 Bq/m3) slightly later (2016–2025). This late but prolonged exposure is related to subsurface pathways of mode waters, where Cs-137 is subducted toward the subtropics before being upwelled from deeper sources along the southern Californian coast. The model suggests that Fukushima-derived Cs-137 will penetrate the interior ocean and spread to other oceanic basins over the next two decades and

beyond. The sensitivity of our results to uncertainties in the source function and to inter-annual to multi-decadal variability is discussed.


Long-Term Observation of Radioactivity Contamination in Fish around Chernobyl

August 31, 2013

http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/NSRG/reports/kr79/kr79pdf/Ryabov.pdf

Long-Term Observation of Radioactivity Contamination in Fish around Chernobyl
Igor N. R YABOV, A.N.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences
Leninski pr. 33, Moscow, 117071, Russia: platon@genome.eimb.relarn.ru

Abstract
Dynamics of 137Cs accumulation by marketable fishes in different kinds of water bodies (cooling pond, water reservoir, lake) polluted by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The highest concentration of 137 Cs, reaching 500 kBq/kg w.w. (wet weight) was registered in fish inhabiting the cooling pond of ChNPP in 1986. During the last 15 years the level of radionuclides in fishes of all water bodies came down, but rates of lowering are different. Peculiarities of 137 Cs accumulation by fishes depending on the trophic level have been revealed. During the first months after the Chernobyl accident the concentration of
137 Cs in peaceable species of fishes in Kiev Reservoir was by 10 times higher than in pike.

After 1987 predatory fishes have the concentration of 137 Cs by 2-3 times higher than peaceable fishes. Higher indices have been marked in pike and large perches. By 2001 the content of 137 Cs in fishes in the cooling pond did not exceed 5 kBq/kg w.w., in River Teterev – 0.09 kBq/kg w.w., in Kiev Reservoir – 0.5 kBq/kg w.w. High content of 137 Cs
remained in the lakes of Bryansk region of Russia and in Mogilev region of Belorussia, which have low content of +K in water and stagnant water, although these lakes are situated 100 – 200 km from the place of the accident. Biological effects of fishes in morphology of body and reproductive system have been marked in all studied water bodies. The largest quantity of abnormalities in the reproductive system has been marked in predatory fishes.

Introduction
The Chernobyl accident of 1986 resulted in contamination of many bodies of water around Europe.
Three branches of radioactive plume dispersed radionuclides over northern, southern and western Europe.

Radioactivity from man-made nuclides increased considerably in freshwater bodies of Scandinavian countries, England and in mountain lakes in Germany [1]. Forests and water bodies, located in closeproximity of Chernobyl NPP (i.e.within 30-km zone) appeared to be the most heavily contaminated along with Gomel’ and Mogilev region of Belarus, and Bryansk region in Russia [2,3].

A Combined Radioecological Expedition of USSR Academy of Sciences attached to the A.N.Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Animal Morphology and Ecology (now A.N.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences) started its activity in the field of radioecology of fish directly at the cooling pond of Chernobyl NPP in June, 1986.

Later on, some other heavily contaminated bodies of water, such as Kiev Reservoir, River Teterev, Lake Kozhanovskoe (Russia) and Lake Svyatoe (Belarus) have been studied (Fig. 1).
The main objectives of our activity were:
(a) To study the dynamics of radionuclide accumulation in fish after the Chernobyl accident in different ecosystems such as cooling pond, river, lake, and reservoir;
(b) To reveal peculiar features of 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation in fish of different trophic level;
(c) To evaluate doses of radiation and to find out their biological effects in fish living under the influence of chronic irradiation.


Fig.1. Regions of expedition activity at water bodies contaminated by radionuclides
after the Chernobyl accident

Studied bodies of water differ by their hydrology, hydrochemistry and by the distance from the site of 113 release (Table 1).

In all, 45 species of fish from 12 families and one species of Cyclostomata have been registered during multiple fish surveys (Table 2). The highest number of fish species was registered in River Teterev.

Natural water bodies are populated by a set of species, typical of this part of Europe. Different from the nnatural bodies of water, the cooling pond of Chernobyl NPP was used before the accident as a raising pond for a fish farm and contained several introduced species. These were grass carp, silver carp and spotted silver carp of Chinese origin as well as
North American bigmouth buffalo and bullhead. The isolated individuals of grass carp and silver
carp may be found in Kiev Reservoir.

Altogether, more than six thousand individuals belonging to 46 species have been studied
morphologically. More than four thousand samples have been analyzed in a laboratory of radiation spectrometry. Scintillometer RTF 20026 (made in Germany) has been used to evaluate the concentration of 137 Cs in different samples. Dose assessment has been done using the
data on radionuclide concentration in muscles and the gut content of fish according to
the method suggested by S.V.Kazakov [4], taking into account the main biological parameters, such as size and weight, of every studied individual.


Note: + occurrence of different species +; low, ++; medium, +++; high, •; species populated in reservoirs because of fishing measures;х ; species carried in the list of rare fishes.

Cooling pond of Chernobyl NPP
Chernobyl NPP is situated in the eastern part of the natural region called Poles’e, which means
“marshy woodlands”, at the bank of River Pripyat, emptying into Kiev Reservoir. The source of water supply for plant operation was the cooling pond that was made artificially along River Pripyat and located at 1.5 km southeast from the power site.

The highest concentration of radionuclides, reaching 500 kBq/kg wet weight (w.w.) was registered in fish inhabiting the cooling pond in 1986. During the first months after the accident non-predatious fishes, feeding on zoo- and phyto-plankton, were the most contaminated, but later predatious fishes accumulated more radionuclides [5,6]. During the after-accident period the average concentration of radionuclides in silver carp decreased from 400 kBq/kg w.w. to 5 kBq/kg.

Aggregate dose for silver carp during the whole after-accident period reaches 10-12 Gy. Fish has absorbed the main part of irradiation dose, 7-8 Gy, during the first two years after the accident. In recent years internal dose was mainly obtained through intestine irradiation and amounted about 0.4 Gy per year, while internal dose for muscles averaged only 0.02 Gy per year (Fig. 2).
During special studies of reproductive organs of fish, different abnormalities in anatomy of gonads and morphology of reproductive cells have been found in silver carp. Gonad pathology included hermaphroditism, gonad asymmetry and other anatomical defect [7]. A number of fish, surviving the accident, had sterile gonads. Destruction of some amount of generative cells and contraction of generative tissue volume were registered in 48% of males. 35% of females had disturbances in oocyte morphology during vitellogenesis. In spite of various disturbances observed in generative organs, it was possible to obtain viable offspring from some fish in 1989-1990.

Silver carp, surviving the accident, could be easily bred, showing a high percentage of egg
insemination and high survival rates for embryos, larvae and fry [8]. Anatomical abnormalities became apparent in the second and, especially, in the third year of life. There were curvature and length shortage of the dorsal or one of the pelvic fins, deformations of oral and gill structures, deformations of swim- bladder and epidermal neoplasia (i.e. tissue overgrowth) in anal region of females, forming a kind of genital papillae.

Ten individuals of silver carp, belonging to generation F1-91, were analyzed in 1996 and only two mature carp have been found; a male and female. Unusual was the fact of their maturation at amazingly small size for this species; female was only 24 cm long, weighing 250 g, and a male was 31 cm long witha total weight of 461 g [9].

In 1991 during ichthyological survey of the cooling pond an abnormal young individual of tube-
nosed goby was found, having an eyeball developed inside the mouth cavity (Fig. 3). But the rest of thecollected young fish of this species had no morphologic defects. During young fish collection in the cooling pond in 1992, a larval silver bream was found with spinal pathology and with primordial malformed pectoral fins. The larva was found among pondweeds and evidently could feed without swimming but keeping itself at the surface of weeds. It is obvious that individuals having such severe pathology cannot survive in the natural environment.
In spite of high dose rates during several years after the accident, no significant changes in fish community at population level have been observed. Comparison of the degree of abnormality in developing reproductive cells in both sexes reveals that structural damages are more pronounced in males than in females.

Kiev Reservoir

Kiev Reservoir is the first one in the Dnieper cascade into which run rivers Pripyat, Teterev and Uzh, flowing across the contaminated areas. During the after-accident period of 1986-1996, 10,245 ton of fish were harvested in Kiev Reservoir. Such benthophagous species as bream, roach, silver bream and European carp formed more than 90% of the total catch (Fig. 4, 5).
Radioecological monitoring of Kiev Reservoir revealed a decrease of 137 Cs concentration in muscles of predatory fish from 1500-2000 to 200-400 Bq/kg w.w. during 1987-2000 (Fig. 6, 7).
But in the autumn of 2001, perches were met having 550 Bq/kg w.w. In muscles of non-predatory fish, constituting the bulk of commercial catch, bream for example, the concentration of
137 Cs was two-three times lower than in predators; pike and perch (Fig. 8). In the autumn of 2001, the highest figures for 137 Cs in bream muscles ranged between 40 and 70 Bq/kg w.w., averaging 55 Bq/kg. Fishes of different trophic levels also accumulate in their muscles different amounts of 90Sr, sometimes equivalent to 100 Bq/kg w.w. In 1991-1993
radionuclide concentration in muscles of bream, the main commercial fish species, ranged between 15 and 50 Bq/kg w.w. (Fig. 9).

In order to evaluate the biological effect of de posited radionuclides on fish from Kiev Reservoir, 209 pikes, belonging to 17 generations, have been analyzed during 1987-2000. Three types of abnormality in morphology of the reproductive system were registered: gonad asymmetry (34.1%), total resorption of eggs (12.5%) and gonad hydration (2.5%). Gonad asymmetry, the most common imperfection, was frequently accompanied by constrictions. There were instances that the weight difference between right and left gonad lobes was very high. Most frequently,
this difference ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 times [10]. The first maximum in the number of malformations was observed in pikes born in 1986-1988.

Another rise in malformation number was noted for the second after-accidental pike generation born in 1991-1993 (Table 3). In pike females, born before the accident in years 1982-1985, no gonad abnormalities was found, but one individual with asymmetric gonads, belonging to
the generation of 1981, has been registered.

In 1986 internal dose from 137Cs and 134Cs for pikes in Kiev Reservoir was about 0.1 – 0.2 Gy, in 1993-1997 it decreased to 0.001 – 0.002 Gy per year. Lake Kozhanovskoe
During water bodies monitoring in Bryansk region, scientists from Combined Radioecological
Expedition of USSR Academy of Sciences in 1993 discovered abnormally high content of
137 Cs in fishes from Lake Kozhanovskoe. This lake, located at a distance of 210 km from Chernobyl NPP, has a square about 6 km 2, average depth of 1.5 m, maximum depth of 2.5 m. Lake sides are swampy and overgrown with coastal vegetation. Its bottom is covered with thick sapropel deposits. According to limnological classification, this lake may be attributed
to eutrophic type. The concentration of K+ in water varies from 2.6 to 2.7 mg/l during a year, and the concentration of Ca++ is from 24.6 to 44.3 mg/l. One liter of lake water during different seasons of 1993 contained 137Cs activity from 6.1 to 8.5 Bq. The lowest index was
registered in autumn. Seasonal measurements of pH showed the lowest figure for March (5.8) and the highest (7.7) – for autumn [11].

Eleven species of fish were registered in the lake. They were: pike, roach, bleak, silver bream, bream, crucian carp, golden carp, spiny loach, loach, perch and ruffe. Golden carp is dominating species. The concentration of 137 Cs in different fish species changed depending on their trophic level and size. The highest figure, equivalent to 70 kBq/kg w.w., was registered in 1993 for big pike, and the lowest, from 5 to 8 kBq/kg w.w., for ruffe and roach. The concentration of 137 Cs in muscles of golden carp, the main commercial fish species in the lake, ranged from 6.5 to 15.6 kBq/kg w.w., being 10.4 kBq/kg in average.

The concentration of 90 Sr in this species varied between 160 and 530 Bq/kg w.w. with the average figure of 260 Bq/kg w.w. At the same time, in River Iput’, very close to Lake Kozhanovskoe, the concentration of 137 Cs was almost 100 times lower.

According to the data of 2000, the content of 137 Cs in fish flesh was retained at the level of 1993, and for golden carp averaged at 8.14 kBq/kg w.w. Main factors, determining such high level of fish contamination with radionuclides in Lake Kozhanovskoe, are the high content of radiocesium in lake water and, accordingly, in feeding objects of fish, as well as low water exchange in the lake and the low content of K + in lake water.

Taking into account that the permitted level of 137 Cs content in fish products in Russia is 120 Bq/kgw.w. [12], it can be suggested with certainty that for such lakes as Kozhanovskoe with internal drainage, fish purification up to the permitted level will take 60-90 years,
i.e. two-three half lives of 137Cs and 90Sr.

Analyses of gonad condition revealed that serious disturbances in gonad morphology were found
only in predatory fish; pike and perch. In other species, like roach and golden carp, only small amount of germinal cells was damaged [13].

River Teterev
River Teterev flows across Kiev region of Ukraine at a distance about 80 km from ChNPP.
Contamination of the river with radionuclides happened primarily by radioactive fallouts from the atmosphere just after the accident, and later, as a result of wash out of radionuclides from the contaminated river watershed. Ichthyofauna of lower reaches of the river, around settlement Oranoe, is very similar to that of Kiev Reservoir and includes 38 species. The river supports active but mainly illegal fishing by local peasants.

The highest indices of 137 Cs content during study period (1990-2001) were registered for predatory species; pike and perch. Monitoring of the contamination dynamics in pike revealed maximal levels of 137 Cs concentration in the first year of investigation in this region (1990) with the average value in muscles of 728 Bq/kg w.w. In the summer of 2001 this index became 7-8 times lower with the average figure of 90 Bq/kg w.w. (Fig.10).

Several morphologically abnormal fish have been found during regular surveys of River Teterev.
Four abnormal roaches were caught in 1998. One of them had unusual body proportions – caudal peduncle was very short, and relative body depth was almost twice higher than in normal fish (45% of standard length). The age of the fish was 6+ years and it represented, most likely, the second after-accident generation (Fig. 11). One more abnormal individual, aged
10+ had deformed scales. The rest two fish had anomalies in body proportion combined
with damages of scales. One of these fish in its right pelvic fin had two more soft rays as compared with the left pelvic fin. During next three years, 1999-2001 no more fish
bearing morphological deformities were found in River Teterev.

Lake Svyatoe
Studies of this lake, situated in Mogilev region of Belarus, have been launched in 1997 [14]. It turned out that in this lake, located at the distance of 225 km from Chernobyl Power Plant, the concentration of 137 Cs in muscles of perch was equivalent to activity of 120 kBq/kg w.w. It was twice bigger than in muscles of predatory fish from lake Kozhanovskoe and 24 times higher than in muscles of fish from the cooling pond of ChNPP. Activity of
137 Cs in muscles of non-predatory fish such as roach and rudd achieved 15 – 20 kBq/kg w.w.; their average values are 15.3 and 14.8 kBq/kg w.w., respectively (Fig. 12). Maximum accumulated dose was found in perch to be 0.4 Gy per year.

During fish survey of Lake Svyatoe in May 1998 only one pike was caught. It was four years old and had several anatomical defects: shortened upper jaw (Fig.13) and four deformed rays in the left pelvic fin. Gonad imperfections included gonad asymmetry and constrictions in
the right gonad. Calculated internal dose for this pike was 2.5 Gy for all its life. One
of the reasons of morphologic deformities in the after-Chernobyl fish generations may be the phenomenon called “extended mutagenesis”. It means that mutations are manifested in the offspring of parents, subjected to some negative influence. In our instance, the initial impacts were given during the first days after the Chernobyl accident in 1986.

Conclusion
A considerable reduction of radionuclide content in fishes, inhabiting the most part of contaminated bodies of water, took place during 15 years, passing from the time of the Chernobyl accident. After 1993, the concentration of 137 Cs in flesh of fish, living in rivers and reservoirs, does not exceed 600 Bq/kg w.w. Only the cooling pond of ChNPP and some lakes in Russia and Belarus are the exception [15].

The rate of fish decontamination from radionuclidesis connected with the initial amount of deposited radionuclides, and also with hydrology and hydrochemistry of the water body. Main reasons for the high concentration of 137 Cs in water, sediments and fish of Lake Kozhanovskoe are low content of K+ in water and very slow water exchange. High level of contamination of this and some other lakes can last tens of years, decreasing only as a result of natural decay of 137 Cs with half-life about 30 years. Since the rate of natural decontamination of Lakes Kozhanovskoe and Svyatoe is very low, the process of fish decontamination or “purification” may
also take several tens of years.

Predatory fish concentrate 2-3 times more 137Cs than non-predatory ones; in the process of
90 Sr accumulation this effect of trophic level is not expressed so evidently.
Biological diversity of fish in water bodies contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident does not show significant changes, but the abundance of some species, representing the highest trophic level, may decrease during the next 10-20 years because of
disturbances in their reproductive system. Considering the lack of proven practice and even
any experience in rehabilitation of large fishery bodies of water such as rivers, lakes and reservoirs, there is a need in urgent development of scientific recommendations for safe and rational fishing and fish processing in contaminated bodies of water, with the help of international scientific community.

Acknowledgments
We would like to thank our colleagues from the ichthyological group of Combined Radioecological
Expedition: N. V. Belova, L. I. Pel’gunova, N. I. Polyakova, N. V. Gemba, S. S. Gonchar, S. A. Smirnov, M. I. Molyukov, A. O. Kulikov, for their lasting many years help in collection and processing of the material.

REFERENCES
1. Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident. M.DeCort et al.,
Eds., Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1998.
2.Ryabov, I.N. (1992) Analysis of Countermeasures to Prevent Intake of Radionuclides via Consumption of Fish from the Region Affected by the Chernobyl Accident.
Proc. Int. Seminar Intervention Levels and Countermeasures for Nuclear Accident,
Commission of the European Communities Press, pp. 379-395.
3. Ryabov, I.N. (1992) Evaluation of Radioactive Pollution Impact on Hydrobionts in the 30
km Control Area ofthe Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Radiobiologiya, vol. 32, pp. 662-667 (In Russian).
4. Kazakov, S.V. (1995) Upravlenie radiatsionnym sostoyaniem vodoemovokhladitelei AES
(Management of Radiation Condition of Cooling Ponds at Nuclear Power Plants), Kiev: Tekhnika, p. 190.
5.Ryabov, I.N. (1990) The Ecological Fish Groups in the Chernobyl NPP Cooling Pond.
Int. Conf. “Biological and Radioecological Aspects of the Consequences of Chernobyl NPP Accident”, Moscow, p. 121.
6. Ryabov, I.N., Koulikov, A. O. (1992) Specific Caesium Activity in Freshwater Fish and the Size Effect. In: The Science of the Total Environment, pp.125-142.
7. Belova, N.V., Verigin, B.V., Ryabov, I.N., et al., (1994) Radioecological Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from the Cooling Pond of the Chernobyl NPP in the Post-Disaster Period. J.Ichthyol.,vol. 34, (4), pp.16-38.
8.Belova, N.V., Verigin, B.V., Yemel’yanova, N.G., et al. (1993) Radiobiological Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from the Cooling Pond of the Cherno
byl Nuclear Power Station in the Post-Disaster Period. 1. Reproductive System of Fish Exposed to Radioactive Contamination.Voprosy Ikhtiologii, vol.33, (6), pp. 814-828 [J. Ichthyol.
(Engl. Transl.), vol. 34 (4), p.16.
9.Belova, N.V., Emel’yanova, N.G., Makeeva, A.P., Ryabov, I.N. (1998) Unique Example of Dwarf Silver CarpsRegistration. Vopr. Ikhtiol., (Moscow), vol. 38 (4), pp.839-843 (In Russian).
10. Polyakova, N.I. (2001) Radioecology of Pike, Esox lucius in Kiev Reservoir after the Chernobyl Accident.Vopr. Ikhtiol.,(Moscow), vol. 43 (6), pp. 391-398 (In Russian).
11.Ryabov, I.N., Belova, N.V., Hadderingh, R.H., et al. (1996) Radioecological Phenomena of the Kojanovskoe Lake. First Int. Conf. European Commission, Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine on the Radioecological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, Minsk,pp. 213-216.
12. Standards of Radiation Safety, Moscow, Minzdrav, 1999.
13. Belova, N.V., Emel’yanova, N.G., Makeeva, A.P., Ryabov, I.N. (2001) Condition of Reproductive System in Fish From Lake Kozhanovskoe (Bryansk region), Contaminated with Radionuclides as a Result of Chernobyl Accident. Vopr. Ikhtiol. (Moscow), vol. 41 (3), pp. 358-367 (In Russian).
14. Ryabov, I.N. (1997) The Radioecological Consequences of Chernobyl Accident for Fish.
Radiobiology and Radioecology, vol. 37, pp. 657-663 (In Russian).
15. Smith, J.T., Kudelsky, A.V., Ryabov, I.N., Hadderingh, R.H. (2000) Radiocesium Concentration Factors of Chernobyl Contaminated Fish: a Study of the Influence of Potassium and “Blind” Testing of a Previously Developed Model. J. Environm. Radioactivity, vol. 48, pp. 359-369.

Female Thyroid Cancer, Incidence, 1975 – 2008, all data available, official Japanese estimates

August 30, 2013

No pre 1975 data available.

Source: National estimates of cancer incidence based on cancer registries in Japan (1975-2008)
Reference to be cited: Center for Cancer Control and Information Services,
National Cancer Center, Japan
or
Matsuda A, Matsuda T, Shibata A, Katanoda K, Sobue T, Nishimoto H and The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group. Cancer Incidence and Incidence Rates in Japan in 2007: A Study of 21 Population-based Cancer Registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) Project. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 43: 328-336, 2013
http://ganjoho.jp/pro/statistics/en/table_download.html

Incidence of disease in Japan prior to establishment of nuclear industry:
No data available that I can find. When authorities come to compare Fukushima close in cohort with whole of Japan, the pre existing rate of disease will attenuate impact of Fukushima Disaster.
Photo: Source: National estimates of cancer incidence based on cancer registries in Japan (1975-2008) Reference to be cited: Center for Cancer Control and Information Services, National Cancer Center, Japan or Matsuda A, Matsuda T, Shibata A, Katanoda K, Sobue T, Nishimoto H and The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group. Cancer Incidence and Incidence Rates in Japan in 2007: A Study of 21 Population-based Cancer Registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) Project. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 43: 328-336, 2013 http://ganjoho.jp/pro/statistics/en/table_download.html Incidence of disease in Japan prior to establishment of nuclear industry: No data available that I can find. When authorities come to compare Fukushima close in cohort with whole of Japan, the pre existing rate of disease will attenuate impact of Fukushima Disaster.


source: as above


Source: as above


Source: as above.


Source: http://ganjoho.jp/pro/statistics/en/table_download.html Incidence (4 prefectures) Actual data, Observed cancer incidence in selected four prefectures in Japan (1975-2007); data for trend analysis Center for Cancer Control and Information Services,
National Cancer Center, Japan
or
Katanoda, K, Matsuda, T, Matsuda, A, Shibata, A, Nishino, Y, Fujita, M, Soda, M, Ioka, A, Sobue, T, Nishimoto, H. An updated report of the trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2013; 43: 492-507
The characteristics of the 4-prefecture data are described in the following paper.
Katanoda K, Ajiki W, Matsuda T, Nishino Y, Shibata A, Fujita M, Tsukuma H, Ioka A, Soda M, Sobue T. Trend analysis of cancer incidence in Japan using data from selected population-based cancer registries. Cancer Science, 103: 360-8, 2012

From Mark Willacy’s “Fukushima” “A world health organisation study would later warn that, of all people in the fallout zone during the Fukushima meltdowns, infants in Namie would be at the greatest risk of developing thyroid cancer later in childhood. The WHO report said that, while cancer cases in Fukushima caused by radiation would not rise significantly, for a two year baby girl in Namie the incidence rate of thyroid cancer would increase nine times (Willacy citing Yuri Oiwa “WHO Forecasts No Significant Increase in Cancer Patients, the Asahi Shimbun 11 July 2012 http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/fukushima/AJ201207110058

(The content of the article actually makes the headline very misleading. WHO actually predicts an explosion of female thyroid cancers in Namie.) THE FACT IS, AS REVEALED BY THE DATA PRESENTED AS A GRAPH ABOVE, THE NUMBER OF FEMALE THYROID CANCER PER ANNUM SUFFERERS HAS INCREASED NINE TIMES SINCE 1975. We cannot see the numbers from 1945 to 1974 for the whole of Japan because they seem not to exist. We cannot do a pre nuke industry/ post nuke industry establishment comparison of this, or any other illness.

Fukushima Fishermen Ruined by Tepco Now Key in Radiation Fight

August 29, 2013

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-08-29/fukushima-fishermen-ruined-by-tepco-now-key-in-radiation-fight.html

Fukushima Fishermen Ruined by Tepco Now Key in Radiation Fight
By Yuriy Humber, Chisaki Watanabe & Masumi Suga – Aug 29, 2013 6:34 PM CT

Tokyo Electric Power Co. (9501) ruined the livelihoods of the commercial fishermen that trawled the seas off Fukushima prefecture when its leaking reactors poisoned the fishing grounds. The utility now needs their help.

At issue is a series of wells and pipes built by Tokyo Electric to alter the course of groundwater flowing from the hills behind the wrecked Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear station. The bypass, which is ready to operate, will divert water away from the plant’s damaged reactors and into the Pacific, thus reducing contamination, Tokyo Electric says.

The utility must first get the approval of the 1,500 members of Fukushima’s fishing cooperative and others in the area to begin using the bypass. With Tokyo Electric’s history of falsifying safety reports, hiding accidents and ignoring warnings, fisherman aren’t convinced the system is safe.

“We have yet to reach a conclusion” on whether the cooperative will agree to Tokyo Electric’s bypass plan, Tetsu Nozaki, chairman of the Fukushima Prefectural Federation of Fisheries Co-operative Associations, said today in Tokyo. “We will make a cool-headed decision.”

The three-month impasse has implications beyond Fukushima and Japan because it’s holding up the bid to reduce the 300 metric tons of radioactive water gushing into the Pacific each day.

More than 330,000 tons of water with varying levels of toxicity is stored in pits, basements and hundreds of tanks at the Fukushima nuclear plant 220 kilometers (137 miles) northeast of Tokyo. The water is the result of efforts to keep the reactor cores from overheating and groundwater pouring into the facility, wrecked by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami.
Consensus Sought

Some of those tanks are vulnerable to leaks, Tokyo Electric, or Tepco, said last week. Moreover, the groundwater seeping into the Fukushima plant is mixing with radioactive water, getting contaminated.

Estimates say about 400 tons of groundwater flows down the hillside each day. The bypass would reduce that by about 25 percent, piping the water from the plant and into the ocean before it gets contaminated.

“We want to reach a consensus soon,” Yoshihisa Komatsu, an official at the Fukushima fishing cooperative, said by phone yesterday in reference to the bypass talks. “But some members oppose it so we are caught in the middle.”

Japan’s government promised “to take drastic measures to the maximum extent possible” to contain the radiated water leaks. That has so far amounted to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and the ruling Liberal Democrats instructing Tepco to win over the fishermen before proceeding.
Tepco, Optics

“Despite its support for nuclear power, the Cabinet and LDP politicians know that the public dislikes atomic power and holds Tepco in contempt,” Robert Dujarric, director of the Institute of Contemporary Asian Studies at Temple University, said by e-mail. “They realise that the ‘optics’ of going over the objections of the fishermen would be very bad.”

Worse, leaks of radiated water into the ocean in recent weeks has set back efforts by Fukushima fishermen to convince consumers their product is safe, said Shoichi Abe, a member of a fisheries cooperative in Soma city in Fukushima.

“We concluded that we won’t be able to win the understanding of customers,” Abe said, adding that from next month Soma’s fishermen will stop trawling altogether.

For its part, Tepco said it has tried to explained to representatives of fisheries associations that the water in the bypass system wouldn’t touch radiated areas and therefore can be safely pumped into the sea. Tepco has held at least four meetings with the various cooperatives in Fukushima.
Fishing Culture

“The only thing we can do now is to explain this carefully,” Tepco President Naomi Hirose said in a briefing this week. “We are getting more understanding that the risk gets higher unless we solve the underground water issue.

Fishing culture has deep historical roots in Japan. The country imports more seafood than any other and eats 6 percent of the world’s fish harvest with only 2 percent of the global population, United Nations data show.

In the wake of the Fukushima accident, all fishing off the prefecture’s coast was banned by the government. Restrictions were eased in June 2012, though catches were limited to 16 types of marine life including snow crabs and flying squid.

Fish caught off the coast of Fukushima must be tested for radiation before being allowed to go to market, though the number of marine products failing to meet safety standards dropped to 5.4 percent this year from 53 percent in 2011, according to the Cabinet office.
Executive Decision

According to Japanese negotiation norms, even with the legal right to pursue a vital course of action, Tepco can’t act without ‘‘seeking acceptance of the other party,” said Daniel Aldrich, an associate professor of political science at Purdue University who focuses on Japan and disaster recovery.

“Even with the urgency of the situation, this norm dominates,” Aldrich said by e-mail.

Abe and his Cabinet aren’t able to make an executive decision on turning the bypass on, said Andrew DeWit, a professor of political economy and public finance at Rikkyo University in Tokyo.

“They’re stuck because of a legacy of obfuscation, incompetence, mishaps, and the incredible complexity of this trauma that’s 200 kilometers from Tokyo,” he said. “If you want to hand the opposition a perfect gift, you say: ‘Ok, we’re going to pump radioactive water into the sea and we are going to ignore what the fishermen have to say.’”

Abe’s options are complicated by his plans to reinvigorate the economy, which relies on restarting some of Japan’s 50 nuclear reactors. All but two sit idle due to public safety concerns since the Fukushima disaster.

The prime minister’s economic revival plan also includes a push for Japan to join a trade pact with Pacific nations, which may damage domestic agriculture and the nation’s fisheries

Fishermen form a key interest group in the debate over Japan’s trade talks, DeWit said.

“If you run roughshod over the fishermen” it will backfire when Abe asks the public for support of his economic agenda and nuclear restarts, he said.

To contact the reporters on this story: Yuriy Humber in Tokyo at yhumber@bloomberg.net; Chisaki Watanabe in Tokyo at cwatanabe5@bloomberg.net; Masumi Suga in Tokyo at msuga@bloomberg.net

To contact the editors responsible for this story: Jason Rogers at jrogers73@bloomberg.net; Peter Langan at plangan@bloomberg.net

Maralinga nuclear test site cleanup enabling safe return, compared with Japanese standards today

August 29, 2013

http://www.arpansa.gov.au/pubs/basics/maralinga.pdf

Clean up of Maralinga Nuclear Test site, enabling return of Aboriginal owners, return completed 2012. Nuclear tests 1956-1964. Note 5 mSv annual dose limit, 10 mSv intervention limited (ICRP 1999) Note particle count limit per hectare. Note risk factor at these limits. Compare with Japanese official attitude that doses below 100 mSv pa pose no risk.

THE CLEAN-UP CRITERIA
The aim of the Maralinga rehabilitation was to ensure that the risk to potential inhabitants from exposure to radioactive contamination would be acceptable. The dividing line between acceptability and unacceptability of risk [TAG, 1990] was determined to be an annual committed dose of 5 mSv, assuming full time occupancy by Aborigines living an outstation lifestyle. This corresponds to an annual risk of fatal cancer following the inhalation or ingestion of contaminated soil of not more than 1 in 10,000 by the fiftieth year of life [TAG, 1990]. The value of 5 mSv is broadly consistent with the intervention level of 10 mSv that has recently been proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection [¤6.1 in ICRP, 1999] and which is under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA, 2002]. Both of these international bodies are proposing that, in future, a generic reference level of around 10 mSv be set, under which intervention is generally not justified.
Two actions were undertaken to achieve this limitation of possible radiation dose. First, where levels of radioactivity were so high that a dose of 5 mSv could be received in a short time, the contamination would be removed and safely buried in disposal trenches. In areas where there was no acute hazard but permanent occupation could result in doses exceeding 5 mSv, restrictions on land-use would be imposed.
When determining the soil removal criteria, MARTAC took into account three dose pathways, inhalation of resuspended dust, ingestion of soil or contaminated food, and wound contamination. There were thus two main requirements for defining the criteria for soil removal. The first was the concentration of plutonium in the surface soil, which would be available for resuspension and inhalation. This criterion was stated as the maximum quantity of 241Am per unit surface area, taking account of the Pu/Am activity ratios and the enhancement factors. The second was a limit on the number and activity of contaminated particles and fragments near the surface. These had the potential to be accidentally eaten or to cause or contaminate a break in the skin of a potential inhabitant.
The Maralinga Technical Advisory Committee (MARTAC) established three sets of criteria for levels of contamination that were to be permitted to remain following rehabilitation [Cooper et al., 1997; Williams et al., 1998].
1 Soil-Removal Criteria: At Taranaki, contaminated soil (or the offending contamination itself) was to be removed where the levels of dispersed 241Am exceeded 40 kBq/m2 averaged over 1 hectare (10,000 m2) or where contaminated particles exceeding 100 kBq were found, or where the density of particles exceeding 20 kBq was greater than 1 in 10 m2.
2 Clearance Criteria: Where soil was removed, the residual levels of dispersed contamination in the cleared area was not to exceed 3 kBq/m2 241Am averaged

1 over 1 hectare and particulate contamination was to meet the Soil-Removal Criteria.
2 Unrestricted Land-Use Criteria: Permanent occupancy and unrestricted land-use was only to occur where levels of dispersed contamination were less than 3 kBq/m2 241Am averaged over 3 km2, and the particulate contamination met the Soil-Removal Criteria.
For the dose conversion factors accepted for general use at the time, and the site-specific factors applying at Taranaki, the concentration of 241Am in the surface levels of soil of 3 kBq/m2 was expected to lead to an annual dose of 5 mSv through inhalation of contaminated dust, under conditions of continuous occupancy [Lokan & Williams, 1995]. Realistic scenarios for other exposure pathways showed the doses involved to be no more than 10% of this.
MARTAC criteria for the removal of contaminated particles and fragments states that no particles of 241Am activity greater than 100 kBq and no observable contaminated fragments should remain outside the soil-removal contour or within the rehabilitated area at the conclusion of the operation. There should also be no more than an average of one discrete particle of activity greater than 20 kBq per 10 m2.
MARTAC did not specify any averaging criterion for particles of 20 kBq or below, but 0.1 per square metre or 1 per 10 square metres was not very practical. ARPANSA interpreted this criterion as requiring that there be fewer than 1000 particles exceeding 20 kBq 241Am per hectare.

It is the view of more than one international radiation decontamination expert that the official Japanese attitude toward inhalation dose vectors present in Japan as a result of the Fukushima Diiachi nuclear disaster is grossly under estimated.
13/01/vii-urgent-needs-to-relocate-children.html

“In July 2011, Fukushima Collective Evacuation Trial wasfiled by secondary school mothers, but the district court dismissed their plea saying that there is no health hazard up to 100 mSV and relocation stress is greater than radiation. The main scientific base from the city government side on this trial was provided by Dr. Keiichi Nakagawa, Tokyo University Hospital Radiology associate professor, who wrote a book called “Truth about Radiation Exposure and Oncogenesis” in which he stated an amazing theory, “There will be NO increase of cancer patients in Fukushima.” As there are many doubtful statements in his book, so I sent more than 100 questions to him, but there has been reply from him yet.”

As special rapporteur of UN Human Rights Coucil had described, there are numerous amount of books and thesis that show health hazards under 100 mSV, but Japanese scholars, doctors, administration and judicature are purposely ignoring these scientific data.

Children’s relocation issue must be the of the paramount importance as of now. In fact, there has been increase among children’s death in Fukushima. The director of Fukushima Network for Saving Children from Radiation, Mr. Seiichi Nakate, found out that the numbeばんだ of minors’ death in Fukushima went up 1.5 times compared to the year before the accident based on the government dynamic statistics of population13. Especially, heart disease went up by double and increases were observed in cancer, leukemia, infectious disease, and pneumonia.

Even as for adults, according to acting director of Dr. Toshiyuki Ishihara, Ohara Medical Center, Fukushima city, heart diseases have been increased significantly after the accident. Prior to the accident in 2010, there were 143 heart failures and 266 heart strokes, but in 1st half of 2012, there were already 184 heart failures and 212 heart strokes in only 6 months period.

Even the state and municipal government acknowledged that the number of death is increasing in quake-hit areas, and the government Reconstruction Agency announced the establishment of a project team for examination and countermeasures on death related to the disaster. However, among the causes listed in this project, cesium influence on heart is excluded for examination though the stress-causing heart failure is included.

In December 2012, I heard that 2 brothers in Fukushima became acute leukemia at the same timing. Brothers would have inhaled the same air and eaten the same food, and there is a possibility that simultaneous acute leukemia could have been caused by radiation for these brothers. I made a phone call to Fukushima Prefectural Medical Society in December 2012 and I was astounded when I was told, “There have been no health damage observed in relation with radiation in Fukushima.” Even at this stage, official position on radiation related health damage is totally “a denial.” I stressed that they should tackle this issue more promptly since the situation could become too late especially for children in contaminated areas

In fact, the silence among Japanese doctors on radiation exposure issue is beyond imagination. I made another phone call to the Japan Medical Association, and their answer was, “We have not determined our position regarding this issue. We will make announcement on this in March 2014.” How relaxed they are! I repeated the acute leukemia story in Fukushima to them too, stressing the need to immediately tackle this issue.

As a matter of fact, I asked for this to the Medical Association, but I have no expectation from them. Because, after the nuclear accident, amazingly, the government decided to stop tracking the statistics of leukemia patient number in Fukushima and south of Miyagi, where the radiation exposure was the highest! What on earth can this be justified? I would like this fact to be known to the world.

This kind of failure to act is widely observed among layer of medical society. For example, in a mailing list with members of pediatricians, obstetricians and para-medicals, one member told me that some Fukushima pediatrician strongly denies any health hazards by radiation in Fukushima and controls the opinions of the mailing list telling concerned members not to listen to some activists and journalists. She told me my name was listed among others. I recently had some argument with a pediatrician practicing in a hot spot area. He was not concerned about children’s health at all.

It is a matter of grave concern that doctors, who are supposed to protect children’s health, have been behaving like this. It is not only a concern, already a calamity is started to be emerged.

Considering these things, children in Fukushima should be relocated at the earliest possible timing, but in the contrary, the government and Fukushima prefecture is to terminate the subsidiary for volunteer evacuees the end of this year and furthermore, the government has declared to let all the Fukushima residents back to their hometown by 2020. This is solely an insane policy.

Furthermore, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry allocated a large amount of budget to constructor extend state of the art medical facilities in Fukushima. Amazingly, the summary of the plan states that it aims at positive economic effect of 120 billion yen! http://www.jice.or.jp/sinsai/sinsai_detail.php?id=2485

It is totally inappropriate to build large sized hospitals in these contaminated areas. Immediately after March 11, dozens of in-hospital patients died while being evacuated. There may still be possibilities of further catastrophic accident in Fukushima.

Also, especially those who are sick, challenged and aged people who need care could be vulnerable to low level radiation, so they should be entitled to obtain medical treatment in uncontaminated area. Fukushima prefectural medical circle is tied with ETHOS project and the executive director of Fukushima Prefectural Medical Association Nobuo Tanji was giving lecture for ETHOS. Once again, those who are socially weak including children and pregnant women are not supposed to stay in contaminated areas. I call for immediate relocation of these people.

Not only that, since there are some hot spots in Tokyo and other prefectures equivalent to optional relocation spots, I sincerely hope children and pregnant women would be able to be relocated as an established system

While the Japanese government involves doctors in ETHOS project to keep Fukushima residents for studying low-level radiation effects and further, discard the statistics of leukemia patients, and construct cancer hospitals for future economic effects, I think it is an urgent matter for Fukushima residents, especially for children to be able to relocate through international organizations support as soon as possible.

end quote, by by Japanese journalist, Mari Takenouchi

Hida, Oishi, Sato, Takenouchi & Umeda, “No More Hibakusya, No More Nuke Plants”

August 29, 2013

http://www.fccj.or.jp/node/7041

Foreign Correspondents Club of Japan

Hida, Oishi, Sato, Takenouchi & Umeda, “No More Hibakusya, No More Nuke Plants”
Time: 2011 Nov 15 15:00 – 16:00
Summary:

Press Conference
Shuntaro Hida, Physician & Hiroshima A bomb Hibakusha
Matashichi Oishi, Hibakusha, Former Lucky Dragon Crew
Sachiko Sato, Representative, Fukushima Network for Saving Children from Radiation
Mari Takenouchi, Co-director, Society of Hibakusya
Ryusuke Umeda, Former Power Plant Worker
Language:

The speech and Q & A will be in English & Japanese with English interpretation
Description:

“No More Hibakusya, No More Nuke Plants”

The atomic bombings of 1945 killed roughly 200,000 immediately and exposed tens of thousands to radiation that continues to cause health problems. In 1954, a United States nuclear test on Bikini Atoll showered radiation on unsuspecting fishermen, including those working on the famous Lucky Dragon boat. Some 400,000 people have worked at Japan’s nuclear power plants with more than 30 of those having asked for compensation for radiation-related illnesses. And now, of course, in Fukushima Prefecture and other areas, millions more are joining the ranks of “hibakusya,” or those exposed to radiation.

A number of citizen’s groups representing “hibakusya” have come together to declare that humanity cannot co-exist with nuclear technology, whether it is used for military or civilian purposes. They are demanding the Japanese government immediately evacuate residents, especially children, from all areas contaminated with radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, halt the distribution of contaminated food and stop moving contaminated debris to other parts of the country.

At this Press Conference, group representatives will explain their reasoning and their demands.


Shuntaro Hida, Physician & Hiroshima A bomb Hibakusha


Sachiko Sato, Representative, Fukushima Network for Saving Children from Radiation Mari Takenouchi, Co-director, Society of Hibakusha


Ryusuke Umeda, Former Power Plant Worker & Matashichi Oishi, Hibakusha, Former Lucky Dragon Crew
Posted by Hyon Suk Chung on Wed, 2011-11-02 18:18

http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/18530453

from twitter:
Mari Takenouchi@mariscontact12h:
SOS from Fukushima! Acute lukemia patients are emerging! JPN gov. strangely stopped collecting leukemia statistics in Fukushima and Miyagi!”

http://savekidsjapan.blogspot.jp/2013/01/vii-urgent-needs-to-relocate-children.html

by Japanese journalist, Mari Takenouchi

2013年1月16日水曜日

VII) 福島で経済効果を狙う国と医療関係者たち!?Gov’t and Medical Societies Aiming at Economic Effects out of Fukushima!?

福島で経済効果を狙う国と医療関係者たち!?

Gov’t and Medical Societies Aiming at Economic Effects out of Fukushima!?

現在、ふくしま集団疎開裁判が、中学生の母親たちにより提訴・審議中です。http://fukushima-evacuation-e.blogspot.jp/ 被告側は、100mSV 以下は健康に被害がない、移住によるストレスのほうが放射線によるストレスよりも多大であるとしています。この裁判の科学的根拠の一つに、東大病院放射線科準教授、中川恵一氏の『被曝と発がんの真実』という本が挙げられています。この本によれば、福島ではガンは増えないと書いてあるのですが、疑義のある文が多く見受けられるため、私は中川氏に対し、数ヶ月前に100以上の質問を投げかけましたが、まだ回答は来ておりません2。

In July 2011, Fukushima Collective Evacuation Trial wasfiled by secondary school mothers, but the district court dismissed their plea saying that there is no health hazard up to 100 mSV and relocation stress is greater than radiation. The main scientific base from the city government side on this trial was provided by Dr. Keiichi Nakagawa, Tokyo University Hospital Radiology associate professor, who wrote a book called “Truth about Radiation Exposure and Oncogenesis” in which he stated an amazing theory, “There will be NO increase of cancer patients in Fukushima.” As there are many doubtful statements in his book, so I sent more than 100 questions to him, but there has been reply from him yet.

国連人権理事会の特別報告者の方がご指摘していただいた通り、100mSV以下でも健康障害が起こりえるという書籍や論文も多数ありますが、学者も医師も行政も司法もこれらを完全に無視しています。

As special rapporteur of UN Human Rights Coucil had described, there are numerous amount of books and thesis that show health hazards under 100 mSV, but Japanese scholars, doctors, administration and judicature are purposely ignoring these scientific data.

子供の避難の問題は、今最も緊急性の高い問題かと存じます。実際に福島の子どもたちの間では死亡者数さえも増えています。「放射能から守る福島ネットワーク」の中手聖一代表は、政府・人口動態統計から、「福島県の子ども」の病死者数について未成年の病死者総数が、事故前に比べ、1.5倍に増加しており、死因別では心疾患が2倍、がん・白血病、感染症、肺炎で増加がみられることを発見しました3。

Children’s relocation issue must be the of the paramount importance as of now. In fact, there has been increase among children’s death in Fukushima. The director of Fukushima Network for Saving Children from Radiation, Mr. Seiichi Nakate, found out that the numbeばんだ of minors’ death in Fukushima went up 1.5 times compared to the year before the accident based on the government dynamic statistics of population13. Especially, heart disease went up by double and increases were observed in cancer, leukemia, infectious disease, and pneumonia.

成人についても、福島市の大原医療センターの石原敏幸院長代理(57)によれば、心疾患は震災の前後で明らかな増加がみられたといいます。震災前の2010年には、心不全143人、狭心症266人だったのが、2012年は6月までの半年間で、心不全184人、狭心症は212人に達した、と言います。被災地などで死亡する人が増えていることは、国や県も把握しており、復興庁で11月30日、国と県による震災関連死の検証・対策チームを立ち上げる方針を示したものの、同プロジェクトが想定する震災関連死の原因は、被災や避難によるストレスのみで、セシウムが心臓に与える影響は調査対象になっていないと言います。

Even as for adults, according to acting director of Dr. Toshiyuki Ishihara, Ohara Medical Center, Fukushima city, heart diseases have been increased significantly after the accident. Prior to the accident in 2010, there were 143 heart failures and 266 heart strokes, but in 1st half of 2012, there were already 184 heart failures and 212 heart strokes in only 6 months period.

Even the state and municipal government acknowledged that the number of death is increasing in quake-hit areas, and the government Reconstruction Agency announced the establishment of a project team for examination and countermeasures on death related to the disaster. However, among the causes listed in this project, cesium influence on heart is excluded for examination though the stress-causing heart failure is included.

実は2012年12月、福島の御兄弟で同時期に急性白血病が出たという話を聞きました。居てもたってもいられず、医師会に電話をしてみました。つい先日、福島県医師会の事務局に電話で問い合わせたところ2012年12月時点でに「放射能による健康障害はまだ一人も生じていない」と言われ、驚きました。県の医師会の公式的なスタンスとしては現時点でも放射能による健康異常は完全否定なのです。兄弟であれば、ほぼ同じ空気を吸い、同じ食べ物を食べますから、二人同時にというのは、環境的な要因が原因である可能性を否定できません。汚染地帯での子供たちに手遅れとならない前にこの問題を早急に取り組んでほしいと頼みました。

In December 2012, I heard that 2 brothers in Fukushima became acute leukemia at the same timing. Brothers would have inhaled the same air and eaten the same food, and there is a possibility that simultaneous acute leukemia could have been caused by radiation for these brothers. I made a phone call to Fukushima Prefectural Medical Society in December 2012 and I was astounded when I was told, “There have been no health damage observed in relation with radiation in Fukushima.” Even at this stage, official position on radiation related health damage is totally “a denial.” I stressed that they should tackle this issue more promptly since the situation could become too late especially for children in contaminated areas

日本の医師が、放射能の被曝問題に対する沈黙は目を覆うばかりです。また、私は日本医師会にも電話で問い合わせました。すると、彼らの答えとしては、「我々はこの問題について、まだ見解が決まっておりません。2014年の3月に意見を取りまとめて発表するつもりです。」なんと悠長なことでしょう。私は、福島である家庭の御兄弟が二人同時に急性白血病に罹患してしまった話をこちらでもして、もっと早急に対処してもらえるようにお願いしました。

In fact, the silence among Japanese doctors on radiation exposure issue is beyond imagination. I made another phone call to the Japan Medical Association, and their answer was, “We have not determined our position regarding this issue. We will make announcement on this in March 2014.” How relaxed they are! I repeated the acute leukemia story in Fukushima to them too, stressing the need to immediately tackle this issue.

しかし、お願いはしたものの、私はまったくこの件に関して、国や医師会に期待はしていません。それと言うのも、国は、なんと白血病の統計を、被曝量が一番多い福島県と宮城県南部に関しては、なぜか統計を取ること自体をストップしてしまったからです。いったいここれはどういうことなのでしょうか!私はこの件を世界に知ってほしいと思っています。

As a matter of fact, I asked for this to the Medical Association, but I have no expectation from them. Because, after the nuclear accident, amazingly, the government decided to stop tracking the statistics of leukemia patient number in Fukushima and south of Miyagi, where the radiation exposure was the highest! What on earth can this be justified? I would like this fact to be known to the world.

医療従事者による不作為の態度は、トップの医師会ばかりか、一般の医師たちにまで浸透しています。小児科医や産婦人科医を中心とするメンバーが多数入っているMLでも、福島において放射能が健康被害を引き起こさないと断言する医師がコントロールしており、なんと私を含む個人名まで上げて「放射線の危険性を主張する活動家やジャーナリストの言うことを聞くな」と不安を持つ人々に伝えていると言います。先日ある人が、相手にしてはならないジャーナリストのリストの中で私の名前も入っていると教えてくれました。また、最近ホットスポットで診療しているという小児科医とネット上で議論になりましたが、彼は汚染地帯での子供たちの健康を全く按じていませんでした。

最も子供たちを守る役割を持つ医師たちがこのような状態では、本当に子供たちの将来が心配です。いえ、既にもう異変は起きているのです。

This kind of failure to act is widely observed among layer of medical society. For example, in a mailing list with members of pediatricians, obstetricians and para-medicals, one member told me that some Fukushima pediatrician strongly denies any health hazards by radiation in Fukushima and controls the opinions of the mailing list telling concerned members not to listen to some activists and journalists. She told me my name was listed among others. I recently had some argument with a pediatrician practicing in a hot spot area. He was not concerned about children’s health at all.

It is a matter of grave concern that doctors, who are supposed to protect children’s health, have been behaving like this. It is not only a concern, already a calamity is started to be emerged.

このような事態を鑑みるに、福島の住民、特に妊婦や子供たちは一刻でも早く非汚染地帯に移住すべきなのですが、あろうことか国の政策は全くこの逆であり、今年度末に移住のために支援策を終了させ、さらには2020年までに福島の市民の全員を帰還させようとしております。これはまさにあり得ない政策です。

Considering these things, children in Fukushima should be relocated at the earliest possible timing, but in the contrary, the government and Fukushima prefecture is to terminate the subsidiary for volunteer evacuees the end of this year and furthermore, the government has declared to let all the Fukushima residents back to their hometown by 2020. This is solely an insane policy.

このままでは病人が福島で急増するのではないかと危惧しておりますが、それを予見させるようなことが行われています。日本の経産省が巨額と投じて汚染している福島市や郡山市に最新型の病院増設をしています。あろうことか、1200億円の経済効果を狙っているとまで書かれてあります! http://www.jice.or.jp/sinsai/sinsai_detail.php?id=2485

Furthermore, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry allocated a large amount of budget to constructor extend state of the art medical facilities in Fukushima. Amazingly, the summary of the plan states that it aims at positive economic effect of 120 billion yen! http://www.jice.or.jp/sinsai/sinsai_detail.php?id=2485

このような汚染地帯に大規模病院増設というのは不適切です。前回の事故でも原発事故後に搬送で、多数の死者が出ました。今後もいつ福島原発でさらなる過酷事故があるかもわかりません

It is totally inappropriate to build large sized hospitals in these contaminated areas. Immediately after March 11, dozens of in-hospital patients died while being evacuated. There may still be possibilities of further catastrophic accident in Fukushima.

また低線量被曝でさらに健康悪化が考えられる病人や障害者、介護を必要とする人々は非汚染地帯で医療や療養を受ける権利があると思います。この病院建設が、上記エートスプログラムと連動しており、福島県の医師会の常任理事の丹治伸夫医師がエートスの会議で講演までしております。このような事態を大変憂慮しております。福島および東日本の汚染地帯は、もはや子供たちや妊婦、病人、障害者など社会的弱者が居住してよい場所ではありません。一刻も早く移住の権利を与えるべきです。

Also, especially those who are sick, challenged and aged people who need care could be vulnerable to low level radiation, so they should be entitled to obtain medical treatment in uncontaminated area. Fukushima prefectural medical circle is tied with ETHOS project and the executive director of Fukushima Prefectural Medical Association Nobuo Tanji was giving lecture for ETHOS. Once again, those who are socially weak including children and pregnant women are not supposed to stay in contaminated areas. I call for immediate relocation of these people.

既にその他の県でも、チェルノブイリで言う希望移住区域に相当する地域もあるhttp://www.radiationdefense.jp/investigation/metropolitan/?lang=enので、子供や妊婦に関しては希望すれば移住できる制度を設けていただきたいと思います。

Not only that, since there are some hot spots in Tokyo and other prefectures equivalent to optional relocation spots, I sincerely hope children and pregnant women would be able to be relocated as an established system.

国が医師をETHOSに巻き込み、白血病の統計を打ち切らせ、福島県民を居続けさせ、あろうことか低線量被曝の人体影響の研究や、最先端のがん治療病院建設と、将来のがん患者増加による経済効果まで計画している中、国際機関の援助にも基づく、住民、特に子供たちの移住が急がれます。どうか、子供たちの避難を早急に実現させてください。
While the Japanese government involves doctors in ETHOS project to keep Fukushima residents for studying low-level radiation effects and further, discard the statistics of leukemia patients, and construct cancer hospitals for future economic effects, I think it is an urgent matter for Fukushima residents, especially for children to be able to relocate through international organizations support as soon as possible.

end quote.

Hormesis is, tragically, alive and well in Japan. This is the basis of the discarding of the leukemia stats.

This same deception was carried out upon US downwinders from the 1950s on.