Nuclear Dilution vs the Movement of Radionuclides through the Biosphere and Humans.

Source 1.

The Bioaccumulation of contamination in plankton, US Armed Forces, 1955

Page 59. Quote “The problem of radioactive particles falling into the ocean raises the question of their availability to this portion of the biosphere. Plankton normally found in sea water are consumed in large quantities by fish.

These plankton concentrate mineral elements from the water, and it has been found that radioactivity may be concentrated (Page 60) in this manner by as much as a thousand fold. Thus, for example, one gram of plankton could contain a thousand times as much radioactivity as a gram of water adjacent to it. The radioactivity from these plankton which form a portion of fish diet tends to concentrate in the liver of the fish, and, if sufficiently high levels of contamination are encountered, could have a marked effect upon the ecology of an ocean area.

end quote

Source 2.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7752105

J Radiat Res. 1994 Dec;35(4):213-21.
Concentration factors for Cs-137 in marine algae from Japanese coastal waters.
Tateda Y, Koyanagi T.
Source
Abiko Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Chiba, Japan.
Abstract
Concentration factors (CF: Bq.kg-1 in wet algae/Bq.kg-1 in filtered seawater) for Cs-137 in Japanese coastal algae, were investigated during 1984-1990. Cs-137/Cs(stable) atom ratios were also examined to clarify the distribution equilibrium of Cs-137 in marine algae and sea water. The CFs in marine algae were within the range of 5.4 approximately 92, and the geometric mean of CF was 28 +/- 2 (standard error) in Japanese coastal species. The CFs in edible species were within the range of 5.4 approximately 67, and the geometric mean of CF was 26 +/- 4 (standard error). The values of Cs-137/Cs atom ratios in marine algae and sea water indicated that Cs-137 reached an equilibrium state in partition between algae and sea water. Therefore, the CF value obtained in the present study can be regarded as an equilibrated value. Our results showed that the CF for Cs-137 in Japanese coastal algae were consistent with the Japanese guideline CFs, but were smaller than the recommended value by IAEA.
PMID: 7752105 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text

end quote.

Sources 1 and 2 clearly show that the BIOSPHERE is a CONCENTRATOR of radionuclides. While the danger posed by nuclear emissions diminishes with time and distance, this process of DILUTION is but one of two factors relevant to the health of life. While the scale of the planet and the nature of radioactivity tends to produce a reduction of risk over time and distance, the nature of the biosphere in concert with the nature of the BIOCHEMICALLY ACTIVE RADIO-NUCLIDES presents a countervailing process which reduces the effectiveness of risk reducing processes.

Source 1 is a frank admission of the potential impact of nuclear emissions upon the oceanic biosphere.

The full version of Source 2 is a frank admission of the long term presence of specific high curie rate radio-nuclides introduced into the oceans by human activity (specifically, Cesium 137 from historic nuclear weapons tests). Source 2 confirms the earlier observations of Source 1 regarding the tendency of the biosphere to concentrate biologically active radio nuclides. Source 2 also confirms another source of radio-cesium isotopes in the life resident in the coastal waters of Japan since the 1970s, the start decade of nuclear industry in Japan. One can plainly see the role performed by nuclear testing in the attempt to “normalize” nuclear pollution in preparation for the era of mass production of bombs via “civilian” nuclear industry. The relevant components of historic bomb fallout – stronitum and cesium isotopes – is used as a comparison for civil nuclear power pollution by similar isotopes. The former is used to certify the latter as safe, on the false assertion that the fallout caused and causes no harm to life (any species), whereas the history of nuclear victims is evidence of the primary nuclear deception, ie that fallout from any source is “safe” or “harmless” in the doses measured. In the case of any specific nuclear disaster however, the local pre-existing dose from these components of historic contamination is an additional priming insult to the immediate and long term dose from the emergency. This is obvious. Dosed up and primed. Only the assertions of nuclear industry are presented by governments. Here, in the realm of human activity, which produces, via fission based technology, a range of high curie rate biologically active isotopes – the fission products – which dwarf radium in its ability per given fraction of a gram to induce disease. These isotopes are compared, quite inaccurately with naturally occurring substances such as uranium, present in its soluble form, and which is already naturally present at equilibrium dose within the human body.

That is, if the uranium concentration in the oceans does not change, the sea life cannot concentrate it further in the living cell, for it is already at balance – at it’s maximum concentration, within the cells of all organisms.

The additional condiments placed in the oceans by human activity – cesium and strontium isotopes in the long run – ARE NOT AT EQUILIBRIUM DOSE WHERE THE CONCENTRATION PRESENT IN THE OCEAN INCREASES DUE TO HUMAN MISADVENTURE (and stupidity, eg Fukushima Diiachi is the result of the decisions which preceded its construction in 1967 and the nuclear arrogance ever since, as documented by the Japanese Diet reports.)

Life itself concentrates radioactivity. Life itself is therefore a countervailing force to the process of dilution.

From the foregoing, it can be seen that pre-existing radiological insult, whether of a long term or short term nature, is a pre existing dose. It can also be seen that ALL components of that dose must be added together. The idea of subtracting one component of dose(ie bomb fallout) from another (eg the emissions of radio pollution from a broken reactor) and from the “natural background” is a false one. All components of insult make up the dose.

Further, the concepts biological activity – which equates to the tendency for tissues to gather up, store and metabolize the substances – MUST be taken into account. Both by medicine and nuclear industry in its public pronouncements which attempt to promote the idea it has done no harm. The self serving utterances of industry and government in this matter is particularly galling. For it is patently clear from a reading of the mass media that industry and government has made NO attempt what so ever to explain the concepts of biological activity, bio- accumulation, equilibrium dose, total dose, biological residence time, to the general public.

And a case in point is the singular focus of nuclear officials, including the Prime Minister of Japan, on the theory of safety by dilution alone, with no hint at all of th4e fact of bio-accumulation which even Private Gomer Pyle in 1955 would have been fully conversant with had he been trained to soldier on a nuclear living space. Such as parts of Fukushima Prefecture.

Such deliberate bullshit on the part of nuclear authorities makes me quite sick. The equilibrium dose of the biologically active fission products has markedly increased in the coastal waters of Japan. How far those fish swim is not up to Prime Minister Abe. It’s up to the fish.


In modern Japan, the guy in the funny hat is Sgt Yamashita. “Left right left right, radio- cesium is safe to eat”, bellowed into Gomer’s ear. Sigh. Sorry boss, count me out.

Source 3.

http://www.dutchdailynews.com/greenpeace-in-japan/

Apr 21, 2011

Greenpeace today announced that its flagship, the Rainbow Warrior, has departed Taiwan for Japan to conduct contamination tests on seawater and marine life in the area surrounding the stricken Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant.
“Japan relies heavily on the ocean to feed itself, and given the continual leaking of radioactive water into the marine environment – including TEPCO’s release of huge quantities of contaminated water (1) – it is critical that independent testing is undertaken, in order to assess the true extent of the contamination and the possible impacts on public health and the food web,” said Junichi Sato, Greenpeace Japan Executive Director.
“We have informed Japan’s government and are currently working through the appropriate channels to ensure we can add marine research to the radiation monitoring already carried by our land-based teams in the Fukushima area (2)”, said Sato. “Tens of thousands of people remain at risk from the radiation released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant – we wish to continue providing independent data and assessments that will help people in the Fukushima area make the right decisions to protect their lives and livelihoods”.

end quote.

The Japanese government subsequently banned the Greenpeace mission. I wonder why. Same reason they dismissed the Greenpeace evidence which resulted in the evacuation of Iitate village after a month of government lies and delays. Lies so blatant in the face of so strong a body of contrary evidence that eventually even the IAEA urged the evacuation. The credibility of nuclear is in shreds. And this dishonor will increase over the years for time will not dilute it. Parents and families remember what was done to them by authority. Ask anyone in Nevada or Utah or Coober Pedy.

Source 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(73)90185-9, How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Cited by in Scopus (24)

Permissions & Reprints

Abstract

The safe discharge of wastes into the sea depends upon achieving adequate dilution of the effluent, otherwise inshore biological reserves may be damaged. Water in the north-east Irish Sea can be identified because of its content of radioactive caesium emanating from the Windscale nuclear fuel processing plant. A survey shows how closely this water hugs the coasts as it travels across the Irish Sea and along the west and north coasts of Scotland. Inshore waters receive almost all our effluents and this report suggests that the dilution capacity of the sea may be far less than is supposed.

Copyright © 1973 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

end quote.

Source 4 shows that nuclear authorities are are far more optimistic than they deserve to be on the face of the evidence. This probably explains why independent monitoring of Japanese coastal waters was forbidden by authorities in 2011. As patently corrupt and inept as Sgt Bilko’s self serving frauds. While at the same time demanding that the voters sacrifice for, allegedly the nation, but in actual fact in order to shield the guilty parties.

Source 5. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ns.15.120165.001135?journalCode=nucl.1

Movement of Fallout Radionuclides Through the Biosphere and Man
Annual Review of Nuclear Science
Vol. 15: 175-206 (Volume publication date December 1965)
DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ns.15.120165.001135
C L Comar

I point out that the fission isotopes of bomb fallout are biochemically very similar, commonly identical, to those present in nuclear reactor emissions.

As nuclear activity, for the time being, pending the next act of nuclear war, has shifted from weapons testing to the generation of power and plutonium, there has been a concurrent shift from military objectives to economic ones. As a result, the desire to “reduce the exposure of man” (Comar) to “protecting the economic operation of nuclear industry (Scott, Los Alamos and Lovelace Institute, US DOE). As a result, the evacuation zones established in Japan are scandalous. As was and is the standard of food monitoring in 2011 in the immediate aftermath of the mass reactor failures, and now. The monitoring in place in 2011 was the result of decades of lies being told to the Japanese people. Lies centred upon the supposed infallibility of both the operators and the nuclear facilities. Anyone who disagreed with the implanted lies was economically excluded. In 2011 a Canadian journalist was held at the Tokyo airport, interrogated for hours and deported to Canada for disagreeing with these nuclear lies.

Comar establishes that the simplistic adding up of the components external dose (such as the natural radioactivity of the relevant natural components and the man made radio pollutants of the sea) is inadequate as it ignores the biochemistry of the relevant substances. Each biologically relevant substance forms a slat of a barrel, the dose, represented by the contents of the barrel is limited by the size of each slat. The size of each slat is the equilibrium dose of each substance. Each substance concentrates in specific tissues. Each substance has a biological half life, in addition to its radiological half life.

Such complexity defies the simplistic adding of radioactivity alone. When human stupidity results in massive increases in tritium, strontium, cesium, iodine, and other isotopes, the equilibrium dose of each of these fission products greatly increases in the tissues. Whereas the equilibrium dose of natural radio chemicals such as uranium does not. In fact the equilibrium dose of dissolved uranium in sea water has not varied in sea water for thousands of years. Prior to 1945, the fission products did not exist in sea water at all. And so it is that the equilibrium dose of cesium, strontium, iodine and so on markedly increased in the relevant tissues of life in coastal waters affected by emissions from Fukushima Diiachi in 2011. The Japanese authorities in late 2011 assured the world that the reactors were stable and no longer emitting radio pollutants into the air land or water. This assurance was admitted to be a lie when, after 2.5 years of contrary evidence, reality became so plain to ordinary people around the world that even nuclear industry and its politicians could resist it no longer. In September 2013 Tepco and the Japanese government admitted that the mass rank of failed reactors (failed by an identical fundamental failure – emergency cooling systems did not work, contrary to the promises of nuclear authorities who approved the reactors as safe. Regulations then and now relating to the maximum permissible fuel temp being shown to be useless after a few hours. 2.5 years later, water borne pollution is being emitted due to the inability of modern science to halt the decay heat generation in multi megawatt nuclear cores, as warned of by the AEC’s Ergen report of 1967, which predicted the melt down dimensions of large cores in dry sand after vessel melt through. Presumably GE saw building Fukushima Diiachi on an aquifer as a “safety feature” in the context of Ergen. Pity about the fishermen of Japan.)

The concept of the equilibrium dose for each and every specific fission product is established by the evidence and a simple addition of natural uranium present in sea water is fundamentally irrelevant given that it’s equilibrium does not change. The responsibility for the marked increase of radioactivity in plankton therefore (according to the US Armed Forces, the radioactivity of plankton may be 1,000 times that of the seawater around them, and this leads to the conclusion that the fish which eat the plankton can be very many times more than this in specific tissues, according to the specific biochemistry involved.) The natural radioactivity is an irrelevance. The presence natural equilibrium dose of non fission radionuclides does not vary in the tissues. Nuclear industry is not off the hook for the radioactivity of the tissues in food is substantially increased not by the natural elements, but by the fission products which are the byproduct of Tepco’s activities pursuant to its motivation. Any excuse will do, even disowning its pollution. Pretending cesium 137 is dissolved uranium is not on. It does not work. When one compares the compares the presence of uranium in sea water in the Atlantic trench with cesium 137 in coastal waters adjacent to Fukushima Diiachi, there will be no comparison either biochemically or radiologically. The amount of cesium 137 in the tissues of a fish in mid Atlantic will be very much less than the cesium 137 present in the tissues of a bottom feeding species off Fukushima Diiachi. And very much less than a fish migrating from Fukushima coastal waters to California. Yet the nuclear industry puts it out still that one merely has to add up the natural radioactivity of the oceans to see that the impact of Fukushima Diiachi is minor compared to the total radioactivity of the world’s oceans.

This is totally inadequate as an explanation. Go fishing off Fukushima and what do you get? Something far worse than would be the case if the plant had never been built. Unless one is stupid enough to believe the lie that cesium is like a banana. Once again, the human equilibrium dose of potassium 40 has not varied for thousands of years. Potassium is needed for life, less than 1% of it is K40. K40 is ever present. Cesium even in its natural stable state is toxic. It is not a nutrient. Governments warn against its consumption. Cesium’s fission isotopes form an addition equilibrium dose in a contaminated environment. The sea off Fukushima is markedly enriched with cesium fission isotopes generated by nuclear industry. It is not a banana, it is insane. Its like equating radio strontium to mothers’ milk. Why don’t they do that these days?, I urge the reader to ask. Because dear readers, it was the nukers who made and make mothers’ milk radioactive. In 2011 mothers close in to the gaggled of failed reactors were secreting cesium 137 and strontium in their milk. (ABC Australia). This in an allegedly safe area. The inhalation pathway is underestimated in Japan. (Source, email to me from D.Chanin, http://www.linkedin.com/pub/david-chanin/18/104/224


The strontium equivalent dose. 1960. Mother checks baby’s milk through glass with a gamma detector (looking for a beta emitter with a government supplied detector, USA.) If I lived in Japan I would ask my compatriots this: “Are you as deceived as the woman in this picture? How do you know one way or the other when the touted expert, Dr Yamashita, chops and changes even the minimum latent period for thyroid cancer, adding 5 years between his findings in Ukraine in the 1990s and Japan 2013? What makes Japanese babies so much more radio-resistant than kids in Ukraine Dr Yamashita? Self serving nuclear crap. Why did Yamashita do a radical reassessment in this matter only after March 2011? Objective science? Maybe. Why do myriad other authorities currently contradict him? If the survival of Japan depends upon the twisting
of science, the technology which places such demands upon a population is better left unused. If a nation can only survive by issuing dosimeters to kids so that they can monitor their exposures as they walk to school and play on monkey bars and in the sand pit of the child care centre, well, I ask, are they radiation workers? Then pay them or evacuate them.


Like the plankton off the Fukushima coast, these kids are absorbing the corruption of their environment.

Source 6. The Voyage of the Lucky Dragon, Ralph E. Lapp, 1958.

The Japanese findings of 1958 as described by Manhattan Project scientist and AEC employee Lapp fly in the face of modern accounts provided by alleged nuclear scientists who claim the size of the world’s ocean dilute the nuclear pollutants. There was great variability within individual catches, between individual boats and between specific locations. The radioactivity appeared, in Lapp’s eyes, to “spread like an invisible stain”. This flies in the face of modern so called scientific claims that describe dilution and comparison as the only legitimate processes and methods. As has been shown by the above sources, there is another confounding process, that of bio-accumulation. Further, the concept of the equilibrium dose for specific radio-nuclides provides the mechanism by which steady state natural emitters remain at naturally low concentrations in tissues while newly introduced fission isotopes or fission isotopes which constantly leak into the oceans produce a profound increase in radioactivity of certain tissues of sea life. And ultimately, if these fish are the regular foodstuffs of a nation, the radioactivity of the human tissue increases according to the laws of biochemistry and equilibrium dose. The less fission products released by humans into the oceans the better . (Unless your name is Pam Sykes, who considers fission releases as free vitamins donated to the world by Betchel, Toros Energy and BHP, and apparently, according to Prof Sykes, Lapp is a radiophobe who was “ignorant of radiation” like the rest of us).

Tepco recently reported a fish caught in the direct environs of Fukushima Diiachi. It set a new record for radioactive contamination for a modern Japanese fish. According to Woods Hole Institute, the contamination of a migratory fish rapidly reduces the further it swims from the afflicted Japanese coast. It would be interesting to imagine a worst case fish, such as the one caught by Tepco. How many miles of swimming would it take before it was safe to eat.
And I wonder, as Lapp did, as the radioactivity of the fish caught in the 1950s, hundreds of miles from the Marshall Islands, which recorded 1,500 clicks per minute, with the detector probe held four inches from the creature. Months after the fission release, and so far from the source. Dilution or invisible stain. Who is right in each and every case.

Source 7
. http://www.tepco.co.jp/nu/fukushima-np/f1/smp/2013/images/fish_130315-j.pdf Tepco reporting the extent of contamination of fish 20 kms off the coast. In Japanese. See right hand side of page for Cs isotope contamination. See also: 1. http://jen.jiji.com/jc/eng?g=eco&k=2013031501020
JiJi Press Fukushima, March 15 2013 (Jiji Press)–A fat greenling caught inside the port of Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant has rewritten the radioactive contamination record for a fish since the disaster at the plant two years ago, TEPCO said Friday.
The fish, caught on Feb. 21 near water intakes for the No. 1 to No. 4 reactors at the northeastern Japan power station, contained 740,000 becquerels of radioactive cesium per kilogram, 7,400 times the government’s safety limit for food.
TEPCO caught the fish in a section inside silt fences installed to prevent the spread of radioactive water from the port.
The previous contamination record for a fish since the disaster was 510,000 becquerels.
The TEPCO data sheets upon which the above article is based is available in Japanese at http://www.tepco.co.jp/nu/fukushima-np/f1/smp/2013/images/fish_130315-j.pdf
(2013/03/15-21:50)

How far do these fish have to swim before they are free of Cs and other undisclosed radio chemicals?

Source 8. The article which takes the industry view of ocean contamination, despite the complexity of reality as briefly and roughly outlined above.http://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2013/09/04/solving-the-fukushima-radioactivity-problem-dump-it-all-into-the-ocean/ The article describes dilution as the sole factor at work in cases of radio-contamination of the ocean. It is cursory and omits completely the factors listed above and described in each of the sources given above.

There is a basis to worry about the health of the oceans. Time may be a dilution factor, but less so when you have a gaggle of nuclear reactors leaking their contents “slowly” into the sea over a period of years, the first 2.5 years being ones in which authorities denied any leaks were occurring at all. And those who held leaks were indeed happening were labeled by world nuclear authorities as liars and lunatics. Wrong. Shoe on wrong foot.

There is one more source I wish to introduce. Largely to annoy LBL with.

Source 9. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Volume 46, January – April, 1941, New York, received Adelaide University, South Australia, June 1941,

In this paper, which is copyright, it was found that suckling baby mice born of uncontaminated mothers, when given to surrogate mothers who were fed strontium 89 became more radioactive than their contaminated surrogate mothers.

The same, I propose, applies to humans. Mock me for that LBL. But you know this stuff has been known for a very, very long time. And in the matter of selling nuclear technology, there are many claims of safety made in the sales propaganda, but it’s largely bullshit, and has been known to be so since Ergen, 1967. Safety progress in nuclear technology is a myth and dilution is but one factor. There are competing and contradictory forces at work in the natural world which no human fully understands and which corporate cannot comprehend.

Source 10. Journal of Dairy Science,
Volume 55, Issue 5 , Pages 633-639, May 1972
Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 in Milk and Certain other Materials Collected in Finland

B.E. Baker

E.R. Samuels

Erkki Pulliainen

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Macdonald College of McGill University, Macdonald College P.O., Province of Quebec, Canada

Radiation Protection Division, Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Canada

Department of Agricultural and Forest Zoology, University of Helsinky, Finland

Received 18 March 1971

Abstract
Sixty samples of human milk, 18 of bovine milk, 15 of reindeer milk, 1 of reindeer meat, and different lichens, all collected in Finland, were analyzed for 90Sr, and 137Cs. Reindeer milk contained the most 90Sr, being 119 pCi per liter. Only 5 samples of human milk had detectable amounts of 90Sr and 4 came from north of Oulu. Human milk from north and south of Oulu contained 114 and 19.7 pCi per liter of 137Cs whereas bovine milk from the same regions contained 125 and 84 pCi per liter of 137Cs. Reindeer milk from Lapland contained 1,647 pCi per liter of 137Cs which is 13 to 14 times more than that of human and bovine milk from the same area. A specimen of dried reindeer meat contained per kilogram, 237 pCi of 90Sr and 76,124 pCi of 137Cs. A sample of lichen, Cladonia species, contained 1,361 pCi of 90Sr and 21,173 pCi of 137Cs per kilogram.

What is it really like for even five mothers in specific bio-chemical situations in specific addresses in Japan, unknown to the world, and to themselves, because authorities have deluded themselves into thinking progress in human processes has occurred since Dr Pecher was alive?

Source 10 South Korea bans fish imports from 8 Japanese Prefectures in the wake of nuclear lies from Japan
http://www.euronews.com/2013/09/06/seoul-bans-japanese-fish-imports-amid-radioactive-concerns/

“South Korea has banned the import of sea food products from eight Japanese prefectures amid radioactive contamination concerns.

Seoul said the measure is in response to public fears over the flow of tainted water into the Pacific from the crippled Fukushima nuclear plant.

A spokesperson for the South Korean government announced the ban: “Our government made the decision as it is unclear how the Japanese crisis will progress and it will be difficult to predict future risk from Japanese government data only.”

Japan’s Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihde Suga responded by saying: “Since the nuclear accident we are adopting the highest level of safety standards and implementing strict inspections and controls on food exports.”

The Tokyo Electric Power Company, which runs the plant, has admitted that since the March 11 earthquake/tsunami hundreds of tonnes of contaminated water have leaked into the Pacific Ocean, something it had previously denied.

Nothing to worry about? Pull the other one Mr Barrett. Telling lies is something the nuclear industry perfected in 1945. Every year since then has proven the modus operandi has not changed. Seeing as this is demonstrably NOT a process which is unique to Japan, it is quite pointless for Tepco to import an American to act as it’s mouthpiece for the world. First6 order of business then is to tell the truth, evacuate Fukushima and openly and honestly conduct the health surveys. No more hidden, suppressed and excluded nuclear victims, whether their number be 5 or 5 million.

Dave Whyte, nuclear veteran, and others, have their pension hearings in England later this month. The British MOD won’t tell the men and widows the doses received for the “sake of international relations.”

It’s not water under the bridge Mr Cameron. No-one is ever going to forget how Japanese authorities lied for two and a half years about the water leakage from Fukushima Diiachi.

No-one who knows will forgive authorities in Japan for adding five years to their claimed minimum latent period for thyroid cancer.

No-one who has watched the Tepco live cam will ever believe the airborne emissions from Fukushima Diiachi has been zero since December 2011.

etc etc etc . same old.

The process of dilution is actually the process of distribution, the process whereby the environment naturally ensures as much of the biosphere as possible has access to substances the earth was originally endowed with. Today, the interaction between environment and biosphere, via the natural processes of distribution ensures that the manufactured radio chemical poisons injected into the planet by nuclear industry and its investors is spread far and wide.

And this why Cesium 137 can be found even at the frozen poles.

Penguins were never meant to eat bananas, smoke cigarettes or store the output of Tepco and General Electric in their body fat.


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