DSM IV

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagnostic_and_Statistical_Manual_of_Mental_Disorders

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, and policy makers together with alternatives such as the the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), produced by the World Health Organization(WHO). As of February 2014, the current version of the DSM is the fifth edition, DSM-5, published on May 18, 2013.

The DSM evolved from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, and from a United States Army manual. Revisions since its first publication in 1952 have incrementally added to the total number of mental disorders, although also removing those no longer considered to be mental disorders.

The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), produced by the World Health Organization (WHO), is the other commonly used manual for mental disorders. It is distinguished from the DSM in that it covers health as a whole. It is in fact the official diagnostic system for mental disorders in the US, but is used more widely in Europe and other parts of the world. The coding system used in the DSM is designed to correspond with the codes used in the ICD, although not all codes may match at all times because the two publications are not revised synchronously.

While the DSM has been praised for standardizing psychiatric diagnostic categories and criteria, it has also generated controversy and criticism. Critics, including the National Institute of Mental Health, argue that the DSM represents an unscientific and subjective system.[1] There are ongoing issues concerning the validity and reliability of the diagnostic categories; the reliance on superficial symptoms; the use of artificial dividing lines between categories and from ‘normality’; possible cultural bias; medicalization of human distress.[2][3][4][5][6] The publication of the DSM, with tightly guarded copyrights, now makes APA over $5 million a year, historically totaling over $100 million.[7]

Sources:

2. Allen Frances (17 May 2013). “The New Crisis in Confidence in Psychiatric Diagnosis“. Annals of Internal Medicine.
3. Dalal PK, Sivakumar T. (2009) Moving towards ICD-11 and DSM-5: Concept and evolution of psychiatric classification. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 51, Issue 4, Page 310-319.
4. Kendell, R., Jablensky, A (January 2003). “Distinguishing Between the Validity and Utility of Psychiatric Diagnoses“. American Journal of Psychiatry 160 (1): 4–12. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.4. PMID 12505793.
5. Baca-Garcia, E., Perez-Rodriguez, M. M., Basurte-Villamor, I., Del Moral, A. L. F., Jimenez-Arriero, M. A., De Rivera, J. L. G., Saiz-Ruiz, J., Oquendo, M. A. (March 2007). “Diagnostic stability of psychiatric disorders in clinical practice“. The British Journal of Psychiatry 190 (3): 210–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.106.024026. PMID 17329740.
6. Pincus, H. A., Zarin, DA, First, M (1998). “Clinical Significance” and DSM-IV“. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55 (12): 1145; author reply 1147–8. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.55.12.1145. PMID 9862559.

There are times when quackery is patently obvious. Especially if a government and an industry, being subject to mass dissent, is making the “diagnosis” at the time.


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